There were no Hindus in Goa before Portuguese landed: Church thinker

This deranged idiot takes the cake in self-delusion even by the standards of monotheists. And he has been declared as a “leading Christian theologist.” I dread to think what kind of theories their non-leading “thinkers” may be cooking — perhaps something like “sun goes around earth” and “earth is no older than 4000 BC and dinosaur fossils have been planted by Satan to fool us.”

The guy makes such a foolish argument, only monotheists can believe it. It is like I start calling you “Tommy” from today, and then use that to deny your past existence because you as Tommy did not exist till yesterday. How stupid is that? Who cares which people in which part of the world called us throughout history? Do you care what your neighbors call you in their conversations? What this guy is saying is that Hindus as people did not exist until the word “Hindus” coined by Persians came into popular usage by the invaders like Brits and Portuguese to denote them! What next? Red Indians never existed before Columbus because there is no record of Aztecs or Mayans referring to themselves as Red Indians in their literature.

There were no Hindus in Goa before Portuguese landed: Church thinker

Panaji: In BJP-ruled Goa, a leading Christian theologist from the influential Roman Catholic Church has claimed that ‘Hindus’ did not exist in region during the pre-Portuguese era.

Fr. Victor Ferrao, a dean at the state’s most renowned Rachol Roman Catholic seminary, which trains and grooms budding priests has also said in his research paper that the scores of temples demolished by the Portuguese colonists from 15th century onwards were not Hindu temples, but instead belonged to different “independent cults and religions which were often at war with each other”.

Ferrao in his paper presented at a recent seminar ‘The Challenge to be a Goan Christian’ held here, that by painting of pre-colonial Goa as Hindu territory, “there is a direct attempt to turn the historical facts about conversion against the Church and the Christians of today”.

The renowned Church academic in his research paper even goes a step further and attributes political motives to the “reductionist and distortionist” appropriation of Goa’s history by Hindu-logists.
AFP

A leading Christian theologist from the influential Roman Catholic Church has claimed that ‘Hindus’ did not exist in region during the pre-Portuguese era. AFP

“I have described these attempts as Hindu-ology. In fact even the word Hindu does not exist in the entire sixteenth century Indo-Portuguese historiography,” his paper titled ‘The Other Orientalism and the Challenge and Opportunities for the Church in Goa’ reads.

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38 Comments

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38 responses to “There were no Hindus in Goa before Portuguese landed: Church thinker

  1. Emani Venkatesh

    This is only a recent instance of a centuries -old attempt to whitewash and distort our history. And as in all the earlier instances, we Indians are complicit in the act by swallowing wholesale such motivated and politically inspired garbage proffered in the name of unbiased scholarship. Keep up the good work, sir, and in time we shall overcome and reinstate what is being uprooted and overlaid by sheer lies.

    • malaydeb

      It’s more correct to say that they were Indians, or better still ‘Bharatiyas’ rather than calling them Hindus. The word Hindu is not found in any of the ancient Indian texts, scriptures, artifacts, architecture or in temple graffiti. The word ‘Hindu’ was coined by the Persians to describe people living by the banks of river ‘Sindhu’. Accordingly they used to refer to ‘Bharat’ as ‘Hindustan’. It is amazing that the Bharatiyas (Indians) didn’t know what to call themselves, before some foreigners gave them a name to hang on.

      • karan

        @malaydeb
        Name always given by others to hang on,your name is also not given by yourself.

        • What an inane argument! You compare the naming of a country with the naming of an individual. Go and have an I.Q. test.

          • ravi

            My first love is my country,BHARAT MATA,always worshiped in human form,(as an individual) ,because this is not just piece of land ,but our motherland .
            Do I need an I.Q. test???

            • The fact that you have even asked that question, proves that you need one. If possible right now.

              • ravi

                So your first love is not your country,i.e. BHARAT MATA,always worshiped in human form,(as an individual) ,because according to you your country is just piece of land ,not your motherland .
                Then ……..!!!
                Bande Mataram!!!
                Jai Hind!!!
                Bharat Mata Ki Jai!!!

      • cnm

        “It is amazing that the Bharatiyas (Indians) didn’t know what to call themselves, before some foreigners gave them a name to hang on.” Your hatred of Hindus knows no bound. Else you could not have uttered such nonsense. Hindus of India before the word Hindu always knew that there mother land was Bharatvarsh and their Dharama is Sanatan Dhama the modern avatar of which is today’s Hindu Dharama. I know your allergy to reading good and meaningful articles. Still have a look at it. May be you will be able to get rid of your pathological secular foolishness. Link:–http://voiceofdharma.org/books/htemples2/app3.htm

        • @cnm
          Thanks for the link. I will read it. I am open to ideas and not at all allergic to reading scholastic material. What I loathe is self-serving propaanda material laced with platitudes and half-truths.
          You have repeatedly across the blogs, accused me of being ‘incurably anti-Hindu’. Though it will not convince you otherwise, still here is my two pence on my being a Hindu.
          My being a Hindu is an accident of birth, over which I had no control. Since I had no hand in it, I find it outright silly to be proud of it. One can be proud of things that have been achieved by application of labour and/or intellect. That doesn’t mean I am anti-Hindu. I am perfectly at ease with my Hindu name, my Hindu relatives and friends and the society I live in. What I am against is the attempt by some Hindus to define Hindu (actually Indian) traditions (I refuse to call it a religion) in a way similar to the more rigid and institutionalised religions like Christianity or Islam. IMO they are trying to emulate their perceived enemy out of secret admiration. This type of behaviour is common to people who have a low self esteem and suffer from inferiority complex. They are now even deciding who is a proper Hindu and who is not, just like Taliban decides who is a proper Muslim and who is not. I don’t want a talibanised version of Hinduism to take root in India.
          Having said that, I am immensely proud of my Indian identity. Because, I had to work for it, through readings, listening, discussions and simply watching how India and Indians live their life I have subscribed to the ‘Idea of India’ and it is now a part of belief system.

          • nitha

            @Malaydeb
            PROUD TO BE A HINDU
            Some of the Archeological Discoveries of 2002 This lists: 1. Treasures Discovered at the Ancient Angkor Wat,2. Ancient City Found Off the Coast of Mamallapuram, 3. Links Between Ancient India and Mayans, 4. Taxila 600 Years Older than Earlier Believed, 5. Evidence of Ancient Sea Trade Between Rome and India, 6. Shiva Lingams Found in Vietnam, 7. Ancient Hindu Temple Discovered in Indonesia, 8. A 7000 Year Old Temple in Mallesvaram, 9. Satellite Photos of the Ancient Bridge Between Ramesvaram and Sri Lanka, 10. A 40,000 Year Old Cave Painting South of New Delhi, 11. Koreans Search for Roots in Ayodhya.

            Some of the Archeological Discoveries of 2003 lists some of what has been discovered so far, such as: 1. Ancient Cities in Tamil Nadu May Be Over 7,000 Years Old, 2. The Ancient Gene Pool of Tamil Nadu, 3. New Theories Place Ancient Humans in India, 4. Ancient Seals Found at Hatab Site, 5. More Vedic Temples Discovered in Cambodia, 6. Oldest Habited Anthropological Find in India, 7. Ancient Fossil on Ancient Sarasvati River.

            Some of the Archeological Finds of 2004 & 2005 includes: 1. 5000 Year Old Harappan Township Found in Haryana, 2. Archaeologists Uncover Ancient Maritime Spice Route Between India, Egypt, 3. India has the Earliest Art, 4. Aryan burial found in Russian city of Omsk, 5, Ancient Krishna Balarama Coins, 6. Pre-Harappan Evidence Found in Gulf of Cambay, 7. Ancient Nuclear Blasts and Levitating Stones of Shivapur, 8. Tsunami Uncovered Ancient Port City In Southern India, 9 Newly-discovered Mamallapuram temple fascinates archaeologists.

            More Archeological Finds From 2006 & 2007 and After: 1. Astrological Finds in Brazil Rainforests, 2. First Harappan Burial site Found in Sinauli, Uttar Pradesh, 3. Undersea Temple Found Off India’s East Coast. 4. Ancient Vishnu Deity Discovered in Russia, 5. Harappan period cemetery unearthed in UP, 6. New Harappan site discovered in Rohtak district, 7. 2nd Century BC Buddhist Art Cave Discovered, 8. Recent Wood Structure Found at Dvaraka, 9. Archeological find to determine exact age of ancient Dwarka, 10. Buddha Paintings Found in Cave in Nepal, 11. 18 ancient clay seals found at Bhasu Bihar.

            More Archeological Finds From 2008 and After: 1. Tamil Brahmi Script Found in Egypt, 2. Ancient City Discovered in India,3. South American Apple Seeds Found in Ancient Indian Sites, 4. Ancient weapons dug up in India, , 5. 1400-yr-old Monastery Unearthed, 6. Discovery of Older City than Mohenjodaro, 7. Pre-Angkor Civilization Site, 8. Anchor of Chinese make found off Gujarat Coast, 9. City archaeologists discover Harappan graves, 10. 1400-year-old Lakshmi Deity Found in J&K, 11. Australian Aborigines of Indian origin? 12. Statue of Lord Shiva’s sacred bull found at site of ancient Hindu temple in Indonesia, 13. Evidence the People Existed 74,000 Years Ago in India, 14. Ancient Hindu Temples Found in Indonesia, 15. 4,500-year-old Harappan settlement excavated in Kutch, 16. Bronze-era Buddhist sites discovered, 17. Ancient Chola period temple unearthed in North Jaffna,

            The Sarasvati River provides articles on the ongoing discovery and work to recover the route of the ancient Sarasvati River that is described in the Rig-veda, and a satellite photo of the Sarasvati River basin. This includes such articles as: 1. India’s Miracle River, 2. The Recent Research into the Sarasvati River, 3. Efforts to Trace Saraswati’s Origin, 4. Project to Revive Sarasvati River, 5. Indian Satellites Find Water Under Desert, 6. Riddle of the River Sarasvati, 7. Bringing Back the Sarasvati, 8. Unearthing Lost Sarasvati Cities.

            Ayodhya and the Research on the Temple of Lord Rama offers some of the latest developments regarding the archeological research on the ancient temple of Lord Rama at His birthplace at Ayodhya. This has: 1. The article by N. S. Rajarama, “What We Need to Know About Ayodhya”; 2. Archaeological Excavations at Sri Rama Janma Bhumi; 3. Archeological Society of India Says Temple Existed at Ramjanmabhoomi Site; 4. The ASI Report on Ayodhya. 5. Some website for more information, 6. The Ayodhya Issue: A Summary of the History of the Ram Temple, 6. Archeological Evidence of Sri Ram and His Birthplace — A Page from History, by Dr. B. B. Lal.

          • nitha

            @Malaydeb
            PROUD TO BE A HINDU
            American archaeologist Mark Kenoyer was able to prove in 1991 that the majority of archaeological sites of the so-called Harappan (or Dravidian) civilisation were not situated on the ancient bed of the Indus river, as first thought, but on the Saraswati. Another archaeologist , Paul-Henri Francfort, Chief of a franco-american mission (Weiss, Courty, Weterstromm, Guichard, Senior, Meadow, Curnow), which studied the Saraswati region at the beginning of the nineties, found out why the Saraswati had ‘disappeared’ : ” around 2200 B.C., he writes, an immense drought reduced the whole region to aridity and famine ” (Evidence for Harappan irrigation system in Haryana and Rajasthan -Eastern Anthropologist 1992). Thus around this date, most inhabitants moved away from the Saraswati to settle on the banks of the Indus and Sutlej rivers.

            According to official history, the Vedas were composed around 1500 BC, some even say 1200 BC. Yet, as we have seen, the Rig Veda, describes India as it was before the great drought which dried-up the Saraswati; which means in effect that the so-called Indus, or Harappan civilisation was a continuation of the Vedic epoch, which ended approximately when the Saraswati dried-up. Recently, the famous Indus seals, discovered on the site of Mohenja Daro and Harappa, may have been deciphered by Dr Rajaram, a mathematician who worked at one time for the NASA and Dr Jha, a distinguished linguist. In the biased light of the Aryan invasion theory, these seals were presumed to be written in a Harappan (read Dravidian) script, although they had never been convincingly decoded. But Rajaram and Jha, using an ancient Vedic glossary, the Nighantu, found out that the script is of Sanskrit lineage, is read from left to right and does not use vowels (which like in Arabic, are ‘guessed’ according to the meaning of the whole sentence). In this way, they have been able to decipher so far 1500 and 2000 seals, or about half the known corpus. As the discovery of the Saraswati river, the decipherment of the Indus scripts also goes to prove that that the Harappan Civilization, of which the seals are a product, belonged to the latter part of the Vedic Age and had close connections with Vedantic works like the Sutras and the Upanishads. In this light, it becomes evident that not only there never was an Aryan invasion of India, but, as historian Konraad Elst writes, it could very well be that it was an Indian race which went westwards : ” rather than Indo-Iranians on their way from South Russia to Iran and partly to India, these may as well be the Hitites, Kassites or Mitanni, on their way from India, via the Aral Lake area, to Anatolia, or Mesopotamia, where they show up in subsequent centuries” (Indigenous Indians).

        • If they knew that it was Bharatvarsh all along, then why this sudden love for a name given by invaders and identification of self by that name. And it doesn’t stop there. They even name their religion with the same word coined by ‘mlechhas’. Do you even understand how much lack of self-respect and a slave like attitude it betrays? Its as loughable as if a Bengali starts calling himself as Bong just because some illiterate non-bengalis refer to him as such, or imagine a girl from North-east calling herself a ‘Chinki’ just because some spoilt brats of Hindu parentage in Delhi call them as such.

          • cnm

            @ malaydeb
            despite your promise I know you have not read that article otherwise you never have questioned the love (which was never sudden) for the name Hindu. Now please read every letter of this write-up carefully and see for yourself the transformation the word HINDU from a derogatory term to one that commands honour and pride.

            Thus by the middle of the fourteenth century, the word �Hindu had dropped the derogatory associations imposed on it by the ancient Iranians and the Islamic invaders, and acquired a lot of lustre in the eyes of our own countrymen. Native heroes such as MahãrãNã Kumbhã, and Krishnadevarãya, who defeated the Islamic onslaught, were hailed as Hindu heroes in subsequent centuries. Padmanãbha uses the word �Hindu� for glorification of the Chauhãn harm of Jalor in his epic poem, KãnhaDade Prabandha, which he composed in AD 1455. It will not be long before MahãrãNã Pratãpa SiMha of Mewar becomes renowned as hindu-kula-kamala-divãkara, the Sun which brings bloom to the lotus that is the Hindu nation. Chhatrapati Shivãji, who turned back the tide of Islamic invasion and inaugurated the war of liberation from Islamic imperialism, will be hailed all over Bhãratavar�ã as the saviour of Hindu Dharma and protector of its significant symbols – gaubrãhmaNa, �ikhã-sûtra, devamûrti-devãlaya, and so on. So also Guru Gobind Singh, and Mahãrãjã Chhatrasãl.

            And the word �Hindu� stood sanctified when Sanãtan Dharma became known as Hindu Dharma. Numerous saint-poets arose in all parts of Bhãratavar�a, sang hymns in praise of Hindu Dharma, and reminded their co-religionists that they were inheritors of a great and vast spiritual vision. The �law� of Islam threatened death to those who said that a religion other than Islam could also be true. But that did not deter Sant Kabir and Guru Nanak from proclaiming that Hindu Dharma was as good as any other. Guru Teg Bahadur defied the �law� of Islam at the very seat of its might, and offered his head in defence of his tilaka (religious mark on the forehead) and janêû (sacred thread).

            • nitha

              @ malaydeb
              THE MEANING OF THE TERM HINDU:
              IT IS NOT INSULTING LIKE” MLECHCHA.
              “Mleccha (from Vedic Sanskrit mleccha, meaning “non-Vedic”, “barbarian”), also spelt as Mlechchha, referred to people of foreign extraction in ancient India. Mleccha was used by the ancient Indians as much as the ancient Greeks used barbaros, originally to indicate the uncouth and incomprehensible speech of foreigners and then extended to their unfamiliar behaviour.

              In the Vedic age the land of India was called Sapta Sindhu, the land of the seven rivers. The same name appears in the Zend Avesta, the holy book of the ancient Persians, as Hapta Hindu, with the Sanskrit ‘s’ replaced with an ‘h’, a sound shift that occurs in various Indian dialects as well. The Greeks called the land India or Indika, which also derives from the term Sindhu, removing the initial sound altogether. So clearly Sindhu or Hindu was a name for India going back to very ancient times. India was Sindhu Sthana, the land of the rivers or Sapta Sindhu Sthana, the land of the seven rivers.

          • nitha

            @Malaydeb
            As your name has been given by others ,not insulting you.This thing also applicable for “Hindu”.

      • som

        The true identity of Indian civilisation has been dharmic and
        not ‘Hindu’. The word ‘Hindu’ itself is not to be found in any of the
        ancient or medieval Indian texts. Nor was there ever any such thing
        as ‘Hinduism’. The one concern from which everything in Indian
        thought flowed, and on which every movement of life ultimately
        depended, is dharma, order. Not any positivistic order but the order
        that is inherent in all.
        Dharma means that whereby whatever lives, is sustained, upheld,
        supported. It is a secular view of life, not a ‘religious’ one; but it is not
        secularism either. It cuts across the religious- secular polarity of
        Western thought. One dharmic principle: every being has a right to
        live, and every individual the right to order his or her life according
        to his or her given temperament, capacity and circumstance.

        • @som
          One of the best comment in a long time which is illuminating and captures the idea of, as you rightly said, ‘Indian civilisation’. It has nothing to do with so called Hinduism, which is of a much later construct coined by Hindu nationalist.

          • nitha

            @Malaydeb
            Again you made a mistake.
            The word “India” came from Indus GREEK as Indos, whence ultimately English India.
            The PERSIAN term was further loaned into Arabic as al-Hind referring to the land of the people who live across river Indus. By the 13th century, “Hindustān” emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the “land of Hindus”.

            AS YOU ARE STATING THAT GREEK ARE GOOD PEOPLE ,GREEK (OR ENGLISH ) HAD BEEN GIVEN US GOOD NAME LIKE “INDIA” OR “INDIAN” IS GOOD FOR US
            AND
            PERSIAN ARE BAD PEOPLE ,SO THEY GIVEN US BAD NAME LIKE
            “HINDU” OR “HINDUSTANI”,
            THEN YOU ARE REAL HYPOCRITE.
            And about “BHARAT” or “BHARATIYA” it is relaed to Bharata .
            Bharata was a legendary emperor of India, and is referred to in Hindu and Jain theology. He was son of King Dushyanta of Hastinapura and Queen Śakuntalā and thus a descendant of the Lunar Dynasty of the Kshatriya Varna. Bharata had conquered all of Greater India, uniting it into a single political entity which was named after him as “Bhāratavarṣa”.

            According to ancient Indian epic legend of the Mahabharata as well as the numerous puranas and diverse Indian history, Bharat Empire included the whole territory of the Indian subcontinent, including parts of present day Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Iran, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, North-west Tibet, Nepal and Bangladesh.

            This represented as the ideal sample of great empires, which was dominated by harmony, wealth and prosperity.

            There are many references to “Bharata Chakravarti” in the sacred Jain texts. He conquered all of the earth and the worlds above and reached the top of “Meru” or “Sumeru” mountain (the center of the world and tallest mountain) and placed a flag. But upon reaching the top he saw numerous such flags of world conquerors before him. This made him feel very insignificant and he took the diksha and attained nirvana.

            Bhārat (along with India) is the official English name of Republic of India and Bhārata Gaṇarājyam is the official Sanskrit name of the country, while Bhārat Ganarājya is the official Hindi name.

      • Anonymous

        The Indians used to call themselves Aryans, now a dirty word thanks to Hitler. Does this answer satisfy you mal ?

        • Let Hitler go to hell. Why the hell you start calling yourself Hindu?
          Are you more loyal to Hitler than to your ancestors who used to call themselves something else?

          • nitha

            @Malaydeb
            We are using GREEK term i.e.” INDIA” or” INDIAN”( this is not insulting) ,also we are using PERSIAN term “Hindu”or” Hindustan”(again this is not insulting) and finally we are using “Bharat “or “Bharatvarsha”which is related to “Bharata the emperor”THE ONLY “HINDU” (YOU MAY CALL” INDIAN”) KING WHO CONQUERED THE WHOLE WORLD ( which you can be proud of) .
            India is our love,so we call her in so many names.

          • nitha

            @Malaydeb
            And about “Aryan” ,do let Hitler go to hell ,because he is wrong .
            Aryan word originally a Sanskrit term is “Adjective” not “Noun”,which means “Noble”.But in German term, it is “Noun”, realed to specific race .

      • ravi

        BEFORE “HINDU” THEY CALL THEMSELVES “ARYAN” ,AND THIS
        COUNTRY WAS KNOWN AS “ARYAWRATA”(THE HOMELAND OF ARYA)
        The English word “Aryan” is borrowed from the Sanskrit* word ?rya meaning ‘Noble**’ it was used initially as a national name to designate the worshippers of the Hindu deities*** and especially Indra**** according to Brahmanical principles (performance of sacrifice, Yajna).
        According to Swami Vivekananda:
        The Aryans were kind and generous, and in their hearts which were large and unbounded as the ocean and in their brains gifted with superhuman genius

        Swami Dayananda’s creation, the Arya Samaj, is a unique component in Hinduism. The Arya Samaj unequivocally condemns idol-worship, animal sacrifices, ancestor worship, pilgrimages, priestcraft, offerings made in temples, the caste system, untouchability, child marriages and discrimination against women on the grounds that all these lacked Vedic sanction. The Arya Samaj discourages dogma and symbolism and encourages skepticism in beliefs that run contrary to common sense and logic. To many people, the Arya Samaj aims to be a “universal church” based on the authority of the Vedas.

        Among Swami Dayananda’s immense contributions is his championing of the equal rights of women – such as their right to education and reading of Indian scriptures – and his translation of the Vedas from Sanskrit to Hindi so that the common man may be able to read the Vedas. The Arya Samaj is rare in Hinduism in its acceptance of women as leaders in prayer meetings and preaching.

        Hitler wanted a pure Aryan race, people with blue eyes, blonde hair, muscular (in the case of men) and beautiful (the case of women). He wanted all Germans to be racially pure because he wanted to start his own “super” perfect race, even though he did not have blonde hair or blue eyes! Also there was a lot of speculation about him being homosexual, even though he sent homosexuals to concentration camps etc.For men it was essential to be fit for military service, while women of child-bearing age were expected to be very fertile..

        So ,there are so many definition are available,all contradict each other.But it is clear that eastern concept
        of aryan is related to virtue(not race like western concept according to Hitler).
        In the light of western concept( according to Hitler)Aryan invasion theory was created.
        In the light of eastern concept{according to Swami Vivekananda beliver of monism (vedanta)who is not very much fond of idle worship ,Swami Dayananda,against idle worship }Aryan invasion theory could not be created.
        And one thing is clear ,it is sanskrit word .Sanskrit(see the footnote * )is also not related to
        any locality(as all other language deserve),but related to virtue called dev-bhasha- language of hindu -deity (see footnate ***)
        So,aryan invasion theory is a conspiracy against Dravidian( people or peoples or is a term used to refer to the diverse groups of people who natively speak languages belonging to the Dravidian language family. Populations of speakers of around 220 million are found mostly in Southern India. Other Dravidian people are found in parts of central India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan. The most populous Dravidian people are the Telugus, Tamils, Kannadigas and the Malayalis. Smaller Dravidian communities with 1–5 million speakers are the Tuluvas, Gonds and Brahui.)

        *The Sanskrit verbal adjective sá?sk?ta- may be translated as “put together, constructed, well or completely formed; refined, adorned, highly elaborated”. It is derived from the root sa?-skar- “to put together, compose, arrange, prepare”, where sa?- “together” (as English same) and (s)kar- “do, make”.

        The term in the generic meaning of “made ready, prepared, completed, finished” is found in the Rigveda. Also in Vedic Sanskrit, as nominalized neuter sa?sk?tám, it means “preparation, prepared place” and thus “ritual enclosure, place for a sacrifice”.

        As a term for “refined or elaborated speech” the adjective appears only in Epic and Classical Sanskrit, in the Manusmriti and in the Mahabharata. The language referred to as sa?sk?ta “the cultured language” has by definition always been a “sacred” and “sophisticated” language, used for religious and learned discourse in ancient India, and contrasted with the languages spoken by the people, pr?k?ta- “natural, artless, normal, ordinary”.

        **Noble means person who posses Integrity(in thought and action with rationality),Chivalry,Courage &Self-sacrifice(for any good cause).

        ***Hindu deities:Within Hinduism a large number of personal gods (Ishvaras) are worshipped as murtis. These beings are significantly powerful entities known as devas. The exact nature of belief in regards to each deity varies between differing Hindu denominations and philosophies. Often these beings are depicted in humanoid or partially humanoid forms, complete with a set of unique and complex iconography in each case. The devas are expansions of Brahman into various forms, each with a certain quality.
        In the Rig Veda 33 devas are described, which are personifications of phenomena in nature.

        ****Indra : the King of the gods or Devas and Lord of Heaven or Svargaloka in Hindu mythology. He is also the God of War, Storms, and Rainfall and is associated with Vajrapani

  2. duartmaclean

    Brother Ferrero must have been on pot when he wrote that comment!

  3. JGN

    @ duartmaclean, there are many on “pot” like Fr. Victor Ferrao. One Mr. M.M.Ninan has written a book titled “Emergence of Hinduism from Christianity” http://www.amazon.com/Emergence-Hinduism-Christianity-ebook/dp/B0047GMGAU#reader_B0047GMGAU

    The poor converts in India want us to believe that there was no place called Indian sub-continent before the arrival of Islamic Invaders and European Christian Colonizers. I am just wondering what brought them to a “god-foresaken” country like India. Was it their eagerness to civilize the unwashed millions of the Indian sub-continent?

  4. JGN

    @ Malaydeb >>>>Having said that, I am immensely proud of my Indian identity>>> what is there to be proud of Indian identity? It is a land mass, marked by an artificial boundary. Some parts of India are already under Chinese and Pak occupation. Should any be proud of that portion also?

    What happens to the “proud” of those who accept the citizenship of other countries like USA? Have we not been taught that “States will wither away”?

    • Read carefully. When I said ‘Indian identity’ it refers not to a land mass, but to the ‘Idea of India’. In last thousands of years rulers of many different hues came and gone but the ‘Idea of India’ lives on. Though some are trying hard to make it like a Hindu Pakistan.

      • JGN

        What is your idea of India? So far as I know, the land mass comprising present day Pakistan and Bangladesh also had the same culture and civilization. Did that prevent them from demanding a separate country? And funnily enough, one country created on the basis of same sentiment (Religion) could not remain in one piece even for 25 years.

      • Indian Realist

        The idea of India is spiritual freedoms and inner sciences to attain salvation (moksha) — both of which monotheists don’t have. The idea of India is to protect this spirituality and stop the spread of monotheism in the world which is sworn to destroy everything that Indian civilisation stands for.

  5. JGN

    @ Malaydeb, unfortunately you also have to accept the name given by the foreigners (India/Hindu) and accepted by our elders and ancestors!!! You cannot change your DNA.

  6. anonymous

    http://www.rediff.com/news/2005/sep/14inter1.htm
    An interview with Richard Zimler
    Richard Zimler lives in Portugal
    His web site
    http://www.zimler.com/conteudo.php
    His book Guardain of Dwan
    http://www.zimler.com/dLivro.php?id=11&m=14
    Then you have Teotonio R de Souza.
    Goa Inquisition was most merciless and cruel
    Xavier was aware of the brutality of the Inquisition
    One of the darkest chapters in Indo-Portuguese history, ‘the Inquisition’ deserves far more comprehensive research to bring out the truth from an Indian perspective, says historian Teotonio R de Souza.
    http://www.deccanherald.com/content/66330/xavier-aware-brutality-inquisition.html
    http://lobomarco.wordpress.com/marcos-home/the-portuguese-inquisition-in-goa/
    In Goa, Hindu temples and idols were ordered to be destroyed. The inquisition was finally abolished in 1812.
    The book by Marco Lobo below
    http://christophermatthewspub.com/the-witch-hunters-amulet/
    Marco Lobos book is avialble on Amazon for $ 6.00.
    Then there is Dellons account
    http://archive.org/details/accountofinquisi00dell

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