Scientists back up Hindu philosophy

Finally, scientists have begun to acknowledge that the deepest spiritual truths of Hinduism have a solid sceintific basis. Let the primitive monotheists cut each other’s throats about whose god is true, whose god is false — their origins lie in frauds and charlatans pretending to be prophets. Only Hindus know the ultimate nature of the universe, how our soul is a part of the universal conciousness and how through Yoga and meditation we can realise that divine concsiousness within us. There is no hatred in Hinduism of others, no obsession with historical events, no genocides, no world conquests, no inquisition, crusades or Jihad, no witch hunts, no “my god is true, your god is false, if you don’t agree, I will beat you” … Hinduism connects with pure cosmic energy by looking inwards . It says soul is never born and never dies and our conciousness is an integral part of the universe. Welcome to the real thing.

Near-death feeling when soul leaves nervous system
London, Oct 31, 2012, PTI:
A near-death experience occurs when quantum substances which form the soul leave the nervous system and enter the universe at large, according to a ground-breaking theory proposed by two eminent scientists.

According to this idea, consciousness is a programme for a quantum computer in the brain which can persist in the universe even after death, explaining the perceptions of those who have near-death experiences.

Dr Stuart Hameroff, Professor Emeritus at the Departments of Anesthesiology and Psychology and the Director of the Centre of Consciousness Studies at the University of Arizona, has advanced the quasi-religious theory, the Daily Mail reported.

It is based on a quantum theory of consciousness he and British physicist Sir Roger Penrose have developed which holds that the essence of our soul is contained inside structures called microtubules within brain cells. They have argued that our experience of consciousness is the result of quantum gravity effects in these microtubules, a theory which they dubbed orchestrated objective reduction (Orch-OR).

Thus it is held that our souls are more than the interaction of neurons in the brain. They are in fact constructed from the very fabric of the universe – and may have existed since the beginning of time.

The concept is similar to the Buddhist and Hindu belief that consciousness is an integral part of the universe – and indeed that it is really all there may be, a position similar to Western philosophical idealism, the paper said.

With these beliefs, Hameroff holds that in a near-death experience the microtubules lose their quantum state, but the information within them is not destroyed. Instead it merely leaves the body and returns to the cosmos.

“Let’s say the heart stops beating, the blood stops flowing, the microtubules lose their quantum state. The quantum information within the microtubules is not destroyed, it just distributes and dissipates to the universe at large,” Hameroff said.



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16 responses to “Scientists back up Hindu philosophy

  1. Good article to read. Any further related articles?

  2. Vicjags



    A bit long, but worth a read. A rigorous scientific-medical study of cardiac arrest patients, by Dr Pim van Lommel, showed that many of them had near death experiences, in spite of having no cerebral activity during that time. Logically, they would be unconscious, but yet they experienced NDE’s despite being brain dead, which seems to support the theory that there is a soul or consciousness independent of the physical body.

    Medical Evidence for NDEs

    Pim van Lommel

    Only recently someone showed me the “Skeptic” article* by Michael Shermer. From a well respected and, in my opinion, scientific journal like the Scientific American I always expect a well documented and scientific article, and I don’t know how thoroughly peer-reviewed the article from Shermer was by the editorial staff before publication. My reaction to this article by Shermer is because I am the main author of the study published in The Lancet, December 2001, entitled: “Near-death experience in survivors of cardiac arrest; a prospective study in the Netherlands”. About what he writes about the conclusions from our study, as well as from the effect of magnetic and electrical “stimulation” of the brain, forces me to write this paper, because I disagree with his theories as well as with his conclusions.

    We performed our prospective study in 344 survivors of cardiac arrest to study the frequency, the cause and the content of near-death experience (NDE). A near-death experience is the reported memory of all impressions during a special state of consciousness, including specific elements such as out-of-body experience, pleasant feelings, and seeing a tunnel, a light, deceased relatives, or a life review. In our study 282 patients (82%) did not have any memory of the period of unconsciousness, 62 patients (18%) however reported a NDE with all the “classical” elements. Between the two groups there was no difference in the duration of cardiac arrest or unconsciousness, intubation, medication, fear of death before cardiac arrest, gender, religion, education or foreknowledge about NDE. More frequent NDE was reported at age younger than 60 years, more than one cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during hospital stay, and previous NDE. Patients with memory defects after lengthy and complicated CPR reported less frequent NDE.

    There are several theories that should explain the cause and content of NDE. The physiologic explanation: the NDE is experienced as a result of anoxia in the brain, possibly also caused by release of endomorphines, or NMDA receptor blockade.

    In our study all patients had a cardiac arrest, they were clinically dead, unconscious, caused by insufficient blood supply to the brain because of inadequate blood circulation, breathing, or both. If in this situation CPR is not started within 5-10 minutes, irreparable damage is done to the brain and the patient will die. According to this theory, all patients in our study should have had an NDE, they all were clinical dead due to anoxia of the brain caused by inadequate blood circulation to the brain, but only 18% reported NDE.

    The psychological explanation: NDE is caused by fear of death. But in our study only a very small percentage of patients said they had been afraid the seconds preceding the cardiac arrest, it happened too suddenly to realize what occurred to them. However, 18 % of the patients reported NDE. And also the given medication made no difference.

    We know that patients with cardiac arrest are unconscious within seconds, but how do we know that the electro-encephalogram (EEG) is flat-lined in those patients, and how can we study this?

    Complete cessation of cerebral circulation is found in cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation (VF) during threshold testing at implantation of internal defibrillators. This complete cerebral ischaemic model can be used to study the result of anoxia of the brain.

    In VF complete cardiac arrest occurs, with complete cessation of cerebral flow, and resulting in acute pancerebral anoxia. The Vmca, the middle cerebral artery blood flow, which is a reliable trend monitor of the cerebral blood flow, decreases to 0 cm/sec immediately after the induction of VF (2). Through many studies in human, as well as in animal models, cerebral function has been shown to be severely compromised during cardiac arrest and electric activity in both cerebral cortex and the deeper structures of the brain has been shown to be absent after a very short period of time. Monitoring of the electric activity of the cortex (EEG) has shown ischaemic changes consisting of a decrease of fast high amplitude waves and an increase of slow delta waves, and sometimes also an increase in amplitude of theta activity, progressively and ultimately declining to isoelectricity. More often initial slowing (attenuation) of the EEG waves is the first sign of cerebral ischaemia. The first ischaemic changes in the EEG are detected an average of 6.5 seconds after circulatory arrest. With prolongation of the cerebral ischaemia always a progress to an isoelectric (flat) line is monitored within 10 to 20 (mean 15) seconds from the onset of the cardiac arrest (3-6).

    In case of a prolonged cardiac arrest of more than 37 seconds the EEG activity may not return for many minutes to hours after cardiac arrest has been restored, depending of the duration of cardiac arrest, in spite of the maintenance of adequate blood pressure during the recovery phase. After defibrillation the middle cerebral artery flow velocity recurred rapidly within 1-5 seconds regardless the arrest duration. However, the EEG recovery takes more time, depending of the duration of cardiac arrest. EEG recovery underestimates metabolic recovery of the brain, and cerebral oxygen uptake may be depressed for a considerable time after restoration of circulation because the initial overshoot on reperfusion (hyperoxia) is followed by a significant decrease in cerebral blood flow. (7)

    Anoxia causes loss of function of our cell systems. However, in anoxia of only some minute’s duration this loss may be transient, in prolonged anoxia cell death occurs with permanent functional loss. During an embolic event a small clot obstructs the blood flow in a small vessel of the cortex, resulting in anoxia of that part of the brain with loss of electrical activity. This results in a functional loss of the cortex like hemiplegia or aphasia. When the clot is resolved or broken down within several minutes the lost cortical function is restored. This is called a transient ischaemic attack (TIA). However, when the clot obstructs the cerebral vessel for minutes to hours it will result in neuronal cell death with a permanent loss of function of this part of the brain, with persistent hemiplegia or aphasia, and the diagnosis of cerebro vascular accident (CVA) is made. So transient anoxia results in transient loss of functions.

    In cardiac arrest global anoxia of the brain occurs within seconds. Timely and adequate CPR reverses this functional loss of the brain because definitive damage of the brain cells, resulting in cell death, has been prevented. Long lasting anoxia, caused by cessation of blood flow to the brain for more than 5-10 minutes, results in irreversable damage and extensive cell death in the brain. This is called brain death, and most patients will ultimately die.

    In acute myocardial infarction the duration of cardiac arrest (VF) on the CCU is usually 60-120 seconds, on the cardiac ward 2-5 minutes, and in out-of-hospital arrest it usually exceeds 5-10 minutes. Only during threshold testing of internal defibrillators or during electro physiologic stimulation studies will the duration of cardiac arrest hardly exceed 30-60 seconds.

    From these studies we know that in our prospective study of patients that have been clinically dead (VF on the ECG) no electric activity of the cortex of the brain (flat EEG) must have been possible, but also the abolition of brain stem activity like the loss of the corneareflex, fixed dilated pupils and the loss of the gag reflex is a clinical finding in those patients. However, patients with an NDE can report a clear consciousness, in which cognitive functioning, emotion, sense of identity, and memory from early childhood was possible, as well as perception from a position out and above their “dead” body. Because of the sometimes reported and verifiable out-of -body experiences, like the case of the dentures reported in our study, we know that the NDE must happen during the period of unconsciousness, and not in the first or last second of this period.

    So we have to conclude that NDE in our study was experienced during a transient functional loss of all functions of the cortex and of the brainstem. It is important to mention that there is a well documented report of a patient with constant registration of the EEG during cerebral surgery for an gigantic cerebral aneurysm at the base of the brain, operated with a body temperature between 10 and 15 degrees, she was put on the heart-lung machine, with VF, with all blood drained from her head, with a flat line EEG, with clicking devices in both ears, with eyes taped shut, and this patient experienced an NDE with an out-of-body experience, and all details she perceived and heard could later be verified. ( 8 )

    There is also a theory that consciousness can be experienced independently from the normal body-linked waking consciousness. The current concept in medical science states that consciousness is the product of the brain. This concept, however, has never been scientifically proven. Research on NDE pushes us at the limits of our medical concepts of the range of human consciousness and the relationship between consciousness and memories with the brain.

    For decades, extensive research has been done to localize memories inside the brain, so far without success. In connection with the hypothesis that consciousness and memories are stored inside the brain the question also arises how a non-material activity such as concentrated attention or thinking can correspond with a visible (material) reaction in the form of a measurable electrical, magnetic and chemical activity at a certain place in the brain. Different mental activities give rise to changing patterns of activity in different parts of the brain. This has been shown in neurophysiology through EEG, magneto-encephalogram (MEG) and at present also through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET-scan). (9-11) Also an increase in cerebral blood flow is observed during such a non-material activity like thinking (12). It is also not well understood how it is to be explained that in a sensory experiment following a physical sensation the person involved in the test stated that he was aware (conscious) of the sensation a few thousands of a second following the stimulation, while the subject’s brain showed that neuronal adequacy wasn’t achieved until after a full 500 msec. following the sensation. This experiment has led to the so-called delay-and-antedating hypothesis (13).

    Most body cells, and especially all neurons, show an electrical potential across cell membranes, formed by the presence of a metabolic Na/K pump. Transportation of information along neurons happens by means of action potentials, differences in membrane potential caused by synaptic depolarisation (excitatory) and hyperpolarisation (inhibitory). The sum total of changes along neurons causes transient electric fields, and therefore also transient magnetic fields, along the synchronously activated dendrites. Not the number of neurons, the precise shape of the dendrites (dendritic tree), nor the accurate position of synapses, neither the firing of individual neurons is crucial, but the derivative, the fleeting electric and/or magnetic fields generated along the dendrites. These should be shaped as optimally as possible into short-lasting meaningful patterns, constantly changing in four-dimensional shape and intensity (self-organization), and constantly mutually interacting between all neurons. This process can be considered as a biological quantum coherence phenomenon.

    The influence of external localized magnetic and electric fields on these constant changing electric and/or magnetic fields during normal function of the brain should now be mentioned.

    Neurophysiological research is being performed using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), in the course of which a localized magnetic field (photons) is produced. TMS can excite or inhibit different parts of the brain, depending of the amount of energy given, allowing functional mapping of cortical regions, and creation of transient functional lesions. It allows assessing the function in focal brain regions on a millisecond scale, and it can study the contribution of cortical networks to specific cognitive functions. TMS is a non-invasive research tool to study aspects of human brain physiology including motor function, vision, language, and the pathophysiology of brain disorders as well as mood disorders like depression, and it even may be useful for therapy. In studies TMS can interfere with visual and motion perception, it gives an interruption of cortical processing with an interval of 80-100 milliseconds. Intracortical inhibition and facilitation are obtained by paired-pulse studies with TMS, and reflect the activity of interneurons in the cortex. Also TMS can alter the functioning of the brain beyond the time of stimulation, but it does not appear to leave any lasting effect. (14).

    Interrupting the electrical fields of local neuronal networks in parts of the cortex also disturbs the normal function of the brain, because by localized electrical stimulation of the temporal and parietal lobe during surgery for epilepsy the neurosurgeon and Nobel prize winner W. Penfield could sometimes induce flashes of recollection of the past (never a complete life review), experiences of light, sound or music, and rarely a kind of out-of-body experience. These experiences did not produce any transformation.(15-16) After many years of research he finally reached the conclusion that it is not possible to localize memories inside the brain. Olaf Blanke also recently described in Nature a patient with induced OBE by inhibition of cortical activity caused by more intense external electrical stimulation of the gyrus angularis in a patient with epilepsy (17).

    The effect of the external magnetic or electrical stimulation is dependent of the amount of energy given. There may be no clinical effect or sometimes stimulation is seen when only a small amount of energy is given, for instance during stimulation of the motoric cortex. But during “stimulation” with higher energy inhibition of local cortical functions occurs by extinction of the electrical and magnetic fields resulting in inhibition of local neuronal networks (personal communication Blanke). Also in the patient described by Blanke in Nature stimulation with higher electric energy was given, resulting in inhibition of the function of the local neuronal networks in the gyrus angularis.

    And when for instance the occipital visual cortex is stimulated by TMS, this results not in a better sight, but instead it causes temporary blindness by inhibition of this part of the cortex. We have to conclude that localized artificial stimulation with real photons (electrical or magnetic energy) disturb and also inhibit the constant changing electrical and magnetic fields of our neuronal networks, and so influence and inhibit the normal function of our brain.

    In trying to understand this concept of mutual interaction between the “invisible and not measurable” consciousness, with its enormous amount of information, and our visible, material body it seems wise to compare it with modern worldwide communication.

    There is a continuous exchange of objective information by means of electromagnetic fields (real photons) for radio, TV, mobile telephone, or laptop computer. We are unaware of the innumerable amounts of electromagnetic fields that constantly, day and night, exist around us and through us as well as through structures like walls and buildings. We only become aware of these electromagnetic informational fields the moment we use our mobile telephone or by switching on our radio, TV or laptop. What we receive is not inside the instrument, nor in the components, but thanks to the receiver the information from the electromagnetic fields becomes observable to our senses and hence perception occurs in our consciousness. The voice we hear in our telephone is not inside the telephone. The concert we hear in our radio is transmitted to our radio. The images and music we hear and see on TV is transmitted to our TV set. The internet is not located inside our laptop. We can receive at about the same time what is transmitted with the speed of light from a distance of some hundreds or thousands of miles. And if we switch off the TV set, the reception disappears, but the transmission continues. The information transmitted remains present within the electromagnetic fields. The connection has been interrupted, but it has not vanished and can still be received elsewhere by using another TV set. Again, we do not realize us the thousands of telephone calls, the hundreds of radio and TV transmissions, as well as the internet, coded as electromagnetic fields, that exist around us and through us.

    Could our brain be compared with the TV set that electromagnetic waves (photons) receives and transforms into image and sound, as well as with the TV camera that image and sound transforms into electromagnetic waves (photons)? This electromagnetic radiation holds the essence of all information, but is only conceivable to our senses by suited instruments like camera and TV set.

    The informational fields of our consciousness and of our memories, both evaluating by our experiences and by the informational imput from our sense organs during our lifetime, are present around us as electrical and/or magnetic fields [possible virtual photons? (18)], and these fields only become available to our waking consciousness through our functioning brain and other cells of our body.

    So we need a functioning brain to receive our consciousness into our waking consciousness. And as soon as the function of brain has been lost, like in clinical death or in brain death, with iso-electricity on the EEG, memories and consciousness do still exist, but the reception ability is lost. People can experience their consciousness outside their body, with the possibility of perception out and above their body, with identity, and with heightened awareness, attention, well-structured thought processes, memories and emotions. And they also can experience their consciousness in a dimension where past, present and future exist at the same moment, without time and space, and can be experienced as soon as attention has been directed to it (life review and preview), and even sometimes they come in contact with the “fields of consciousness” of deceased relatives. And later they can experience their conscious return into their body.

    Michael Shermer states that, in reality, all experience is mediated and produced by the brain, and that so-called paranormal phenomena like out-of body experiences are nothing more than neuronal events. The study of patients with NDE, however, clearly shows us that consciousness with memories, cognition, with emotion, self-identity, and perception out and above a life-less body is experienced during a period of a non-functioning brain (transient pancerebral anoxia). And focal functional loss by inhibition of local cortical regions happens by “stimulation” of those regions with electricity (photons) or with magnetic fields (photons), resulting sometimes in out-of-body states.

    To quote Michael Shermer: it is the job of science to solve those puzzles with natural, rather than supernatural, explanations. But one has to be aware of the progress of science, and to study recent literature, to know what is going on in current science. For me science is asking questions with an open mind, and not being afraid to reconsider widely accepted but scientifically not proven concepts like the concept that consciousness and memories are a product of the brain. But also we should realize that we need a functioning brain to receive our consciousness into our waking consciousness. There are still a lot of mysteries to solve, but one has not to talk about paranormal, supernatural or pseudoscience to look for scientific answers on the intriguing relation between consciousness and memories with the brain.

    * Michael Shermer, ‘Demon-Haunted Brain’ Scientific American, page 25, March 2003.

    1 Van Lommel W., Van Wees R., Meyers V., Elfferich I. Near-death experience in survivors of cardiac arrest: a prospective study in the Netherlands. The Lancet 2001; 358: 2039-2045.
    2 Gopalan KT, Lee J, Ikeda S, Burch CM. Cerebral blood flow velocity during repeatedly induced ventricular fibrillation. J. Clin. Anesth. 1999 Jun; 11 (4): 290-5.
    3 De Vries JW, Bakker PFA, Visser GH, Diephuis JC, Van Huffelen AC Changes in cerebral oxygen uptake and cerebral electrical activity during defibrillation threshold testing. Anesth. Analg. 1998; 87: 16-20
    4 Clute H, Levy WJ. Elecroencephalographic changes during brief cardiac arrest in humans. Anesthesiology 1990; 73 : 821-825
    5 Losasso TJ, Muzzi DA, Meyer FB, Sharbrough FW. Electroencephalographic monitoring of cerebral function during asystole and successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Anesth. Analg. 1992; 75: 1021-4.
    6 Parnia S, Fenwick P. Near death experiences in cardiac arrest: visions of a dying brain or visions of a new science of consciousness. Review article. Resuscitation 2002; 52: 5-11
    7 Smith DS, Levy W, Maris M, Chance B Reperfusion hyperoxia in brain after circulatory arrest in humans . Anesthesiology 1990; 73 : 12-19
    8 Sabom M.B. Light and Death: One Doctors Fascinating Account of Near-Death Experiences. “The Case of Pam Reynolds” in chapter 3: Death: the Final Frontier, (37-52). Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA. 1998.
    9 Desmedt J.E., Robertson D. Differential enhancement of early and late components of the cerebral somatosensory evoked potentials during forced-paced cognitive tasks in man. Journal of Physiology 1977; 271: 761-782.
    10 Roland P.E., Friberg L. Localization in cortical areas activated by thinking. Journal of Neurophysiology 1985; 53: 1219-1243.
    11 Eccles J.C. The effect of silent thinking on the cerebral cortex. Truth Journal, International Interdisciplinary Journal of Christian Thought. 1988; Vol 2.
    12 Roland P.E. Somatotopical tuning of postcentral gyrus during focal attention in man. A regional cerebral blood flow study. Journal of Neurophysiology 1981; 46: 744-754.
    13 Libet B. Subjective antedating of a sensory experience and mind-brain theories: Reply to Honderich (1984). Journal of Theoretical Biology 1985; 144: 563-570.
    14 Hallett M. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain. Nature 2000; 406: 147-150.
    15 Penfield W. The Excitable Cortex in Conscious Man. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1958.
    16 Penfield W. The Mystery of the Mind. Princeton University Press, Princeton. 1975
    17 Blanke O., Ortigue S., Landis Th., Seeck M. Stimulating illusory own-body perceptions. The part of the brain that can induce out-of-body experiences has been located. Nature 2002, 419: 269-270.
    18 Romijn, H. Are virtual photons the elementary carriers of consciousness? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 2002; 9: 61-81

  3. nitha

    “Let’s say the heart stops beating, the blood stops flowing, the microtubules lose their quantum state. The quantum information within the microtubules is not destroyed, it just distributes and dissipates to the universe at large,”

  4. Ashok

    It is painful that some people suffers hatred in western countries,But in Hindu religion,Fourth varna named kshudra or Dalits were born to suffers insult,inhumanity and discrimination till thier death.After 1947 Dr,Babasahab Ambedkar (the savior of Dalits) given rights to dalits through Constituition of India. Still some parts Dalit are beyond animal. I myself Dalit caste,I suffered the drawbacks of Being Hindu.i want to express my thoughts that inhumanity all over world,either on religion based should be condemned. Injustice on basis of birth is not good,

  5. Satyameva Jayate

    No one knows this part of history, the time when Dalits saved Hindus. Yes Dalits did save Hindus from the Mughals. Dalits who turned into Sikhs saved Hindus of all castes. So how can Dalit be inferior? Dr Ambedkar hated caste oppression but at the same time respected Hinduism because he clearly knew that Hinduism is beyond caste oppression. Shudra or Dalit is not a low caste. Shudras were names given to people who did hard work with their hands and legs. Doing hard work with hands and legs is never inferior. Without hands and legs, the body and the head won’t stand. I don’t like to call people Dalit. I’ll just call people Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, Jains, etc. So people who work hard for others should be praised, not looked down upon. I am sure Dr Ambedkar Saab would say the same.

    The Constitution of India should be respected just like our Hindu holy texts.

  6. Satyameva Jayate

    In the Western world it’s called Deja Vu. It is a past feeling, something which has happened before. I call it the feeling of previous birth or previous incarnation. Before the 9 planets were discovered in Europe, Hindus called them Navagraha. Ancient Hindu texts mentioned of navagraha. So how did our ancestors know there were 9 planets even before Galileo? Ancient wars were shown to be of Celestial proportions. Even our Gods travelled on Vimanas which weren’t even invented by humans until the 1800s and 1900s. Our Gods could dissappear and appear anywhere not due to magic but due to their supernatural powers which is beyond scientific reasoning. But humans weren’t given that power because humans have a habit of abusing and corrupting power. Humans think with their emotions and humans are selfish and also greedy. Those who are satisfied are the happiest. We can’t own everything, only some things. Only Gods own and control everything. We can’t even control our emotions during an argument or a debate.

    • riverrunway

      Your inferiority complex is pathetic.

      • hari

        Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus are studies, which originated in India.* Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to mankind. The Father of Medicine, Charaka, consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago.* India was one of the richest countries till the time of British rule in the early 17th Century. Christopher Columbus, attracted by India’s wealth, had come looking for a sea route to India when he discovered America by mistake.The Art of Navigation & Navigating was born in the river Sindh over 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘NAVGATIH’. The word navy is also derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Nou’.Bhaskaracharya rightly calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the Sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. According to his calculation, the time taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun was 365.258756484 days.The value of “pi” was first calculated by the Indian Mathematician Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century, long before the European mathematicians.Quadratic Equations were used by Sridharacharya in the 11th century. The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10*53 (i.e. 10 to the power of 53) with specific names as early as 5000 B.C.during the Vedic period.Even today, the largest used number is Terra: 10*12(10 to the power of 12).Until 1896, India was the only source of diamonds in the world
        (Source: Gemological Institute of America).
        Sushruta is regarded as the Father of Surgery. Over2600 years ago Sushrata & his team conducted complicated surgeries like cataract, artificial limbs, cesareans, fractures, urinary stones, plastic surgery and brain surgeries.Usage of anaesthesia was well known in ancient Indian medicine. Detailed knowledge of anatomy, embryology, digestion, metabolism,physiology, etiology, genetics and immunity is also found in many ancient Indian texts.Varanasi, also known as Benaras, was called “the Ancient City” when Lord Buddha visited it in 500 B.C., and is the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world today.
        Martial Arts were first created in India, and later spread to Asia by Buddhist missionaries.Yoga has its origins in India and has existed for over 5,000 years.

        • riverrunway

          You really buy all this bullshit? You use the mining of diamonds and made up crap to try to build a case? And you only cite one source? Man, you are a joke. Good thing China’s going to wipe you out.

      • som

        The whole world is under the impression that Isaac Newton is the father of Calculus.

        The truth is that Calculus was understood and practised in Malabar of India which had the School of Astronomy and Mathematics , even before Christ was born. It was used to express Vedic physical laws in mathematical terms, and to calculate rates of change in Astronomy and Astrology.
        The great Pyramids of Egypt was designed by architects proficient in Astronomy and Vaastu from Calicut, with tunnels from the Pharaoh’s chamber at 90 degrees between Alnilam of Orion belt and the North star..

        Aryabhatta born in Kerala in 2700 BC, was one of the early members of this school. Aryabhatta was the first to calculate Pi of 3.1416 and the solar year of 365.358 days . He propounded a heliocentric universe 4200 years before Copernicus, with elliptically orbiting planets and a spherical earth spinning on its axis explaining the motion of the heavens. He was the father of plane / spherical Trigonometry and Algebra, when Europe was in the dark ages.. Today you don’t see this pioneers name in the list of top 100 mathematicians.

        Aryabhatta was the first to compute the circumference of the earth, with an error of just 64 miles.. Aryabhatta gave a method to find the cube root of numbers and dealt with arithmetic,geometric and indeterminate equations in algebra. He dealt with square, cube, triangle, trapezium, circle and sphere in geometry. He was called Arjehir by the Arabs.

        Poor Galileo did a Aryabhatta 4 millenuims years later , that the earth is round and circles the sun , and the church blinded him , so that he can never look into another telescope .

      • hari

        When mathematical students are confused with trigonometry even today, Aryabhatta had defined sine, cosine, versine and inverse sine back in his era, influencing the birth of trigonometry. The signs were originally known as jya, kojya, utkrama-jya and otkram jya. In Arabic they were translated as jiba and kojiba, which later when being translated into Latin was misunderstood to be ‘fold in a garment’ by Gerard of Cremona, who stated it as sinus, which meant fold in Latin. Aryabhatta was the first mathematician to detail both sine and versine (1 − cos x) tables, in 3.75° intervals from 0° to 90°, to 4 decimal places.
        Aryabhatta’s astronomical calculations influenced the Arabians, who used the trigonometric tables to compute many astronomical tables. His calendared calculation has been in continuous use in India, on which the present day Panchangam is based. His studies are also base for the national calendars of Iran and Afghanistan today.


  7. Satyameva Jayate

    Below is how humans debate…..

    My argument is better than yours. My skin color is better than yours. My features are better than yours. My God is better than yours. My palace is better than your hut. I am perfect and you are imperfect. But there’s no such thing as perfection among human beings. Even the Sages weren’t perfect. Some Sages used to get angry and curse even the Gods. Lord Brahma gave boons to Asuras and Asuras abused their power. Then I can bring up the argument that even Gods aren’t perfect because they created imperfect human beings. Unlike us I don’t think our Gods have an ego that gets angry when we call them imperfect nor they are emotionally inferior like humans. They gave us the brains to question. We should get rid our egos first to get away from the cycle of birth, rebirth and suffering.

    • som

      @Satyameva Jayate
      GOD gave us the brains to question. We should get rid our egos first to get away from the cycle of birth, rebirth and suffering.

  8. Satyameva Jayate

    There is only the perfect Brahman and from it comes all in its various forms. We humans are only a tiny part of the infinite Brahman. Brahman itself is perfect but its creation is imperfect due to the influence of material reality. The ego is part of the material world. The material world is always inferior to the spiritual and the spiritual world is inferior to the Infinite, the Supreme which cannot be defined by any human being or any other life created by the Supreme. Even infinite amount of books or Holy books cannot be written to describe Brahman which is beyond everything. Brahman is second to none.

    • hari

      @Satyameva Jayate
      India used to be a world power with so much riches that other civilizations were jealous of her wealth. From that time we have reached to an age whern a common man has to convert to a foreigners religion to survive. We Hindus should get rid of our greed, selfishness and help our own first. We should stop amassing wealth that does not belong to us. Our Gods, Sages, Ancestors, Gurus,and noble Kings didn’t teach us to be greedy or selfish.

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