How Old is the Word ‘Hindu’?

Here is an eye-opening article about the antiquity of the word “Hindu.” The communist historians of India and the Western Indologists claim that the word “Hindu” was invented by the Arabs in the 8th century and its origins lay in the Persian practice of replacing “S” with “H”. However, many incriptions over a thousand years older than this period have used the word “Hindu” or its derivatives. Also, the origin of the word most certainly lies in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat in India, not in Persia.

Thanks to fellow blogger Bharat Nair for pointing out the link: 

The article is by Murlidhar H. Pahoja, Ph.D.  What I found particularly interesting was that Prophet Mohammed’s uncle Omar-bin-e-Hassham had composed a poem in praise of Lord Shiva, a copy of which can be found in the Makhtab-e-Sultania library in Istanbul, Turkey. This rang a bell in my mind. There are many websites which claim that Kaba was an ancient Shiva temple. See this video: I don’t know what to make of these claims, but the fact that Prophet Mohammed’s uncle had written an ode to Lord Shiva is certainly stunning. 

Antiquity and Origin of the Term ‘Hindu’
By Dr. Murlidhar H. Pahoja

The anti-Hindu historians like Romila Thapar and D.N. Jha have opined that the word ‘Hindu’ was given currency by the Arabs in the 8th century. They however, do not explain the basis of their conclusion nor do they cite any evidence in support of their claim. Even Arab Muslim writers do not make such an extravagant claim.

Another theory propounded by European writers is that the word ‘Hindu’ is a Persian corruption of ‘Sindhu’ resulting from the Persian practice of replacing ‘S’ with ‘H’. Even here, no evidence is cited. In fact the word Persia itself contains ‘S’ which should have become ‘Perhia’ if this theory was correct.

The present paper examines the above two theories in the light of epigraphic and literary evidence available from Persian, Indian, Greek, Chinese and Arabic sources. The evidence appears to support the conclusion that ‘Hindu’ like ‘Sindhu’, has been in use since the Vedic age and that although ‘Hindu’ is a modified form of ‘Sindhu’, its origin lies in the Saurashtran practice of pronouncing ‘H’ in place of ‘S’.

Epigraphic Evidence

The Hamadan, Persepolis and Naqsh-I-Rustam Inscriptions of Persian monarch Darius mention a people ‘Hidu’ as included in his empire. These inscriptions are dated between 520-485 B.C. This fact establishes that the term ‘Hi(n)du’ was current more than 500 years before Christ.

Xerexes, successor of Darius, in his inscriptions at Persepolis, gives names of countries under his rule. The list includes ‘Hidu’. Xerexes was ruling between 485-465 B.C. On a tomb in Persepolis, in another inscription assigned to Artaxerexes (404-395 B.C.), there are three figures above which are inscribed ‘iyam Qataguviya’ (this is Satygidian), ‘iyam Ga(n)dariya’ (this is Gandhara) and ‘iyam Hi(n)duviya’ (this is Hi(n)du). The Asokan inscriptions (3rd century B.C.) repeatedly use expressions like ‘Hida’ for ‘India’ and ‘Hida loka’ for ‘Indian nation’.

‘Hida’ and its derivative forms are used more than 70 times in the Ashokan inscriptions. For instance in the Jaugadha, separate rock edict II, the lines 3 & 4, read:

All men are my people. I desire for my people that they may be provided with all welfare and happiness. I desire for my people, including the people of Hind and beyond and I desire for all men.

The Edict further, says in lines 7 & 8

Dhamma may be followed and the people of Hind and beyond may be served.

The Ashokan inscriptions establish the antiquity of the name ‘Hind’ for India to at least third century B.C.

In Persepolis Pahlvi inscriptions of Shahpur II (310 A.D.) the king has the titles shakanshah hind shakastan u tuxaristan dabiran dabir, “king of Shakastan, minister of ministers of Hind Shakastan and Tukharistan.”

The epigraphic evidence from the Achaemenid, Ashokan and Sasanian Pahlvi records puts a question mark on the theory about the term ‘Hindu’ having originated in Arab usage in the 8th century A.D. Literary evidence takes the antiquity of the word ‘Hindu’ back to at least 1000 B.C. and possibly 5000 B.C.

Evidence from Pahlvi Avesta

In the Avesta, Hapta-Hindu is used for Sanskrit Sapta-Sindhu, the Avesta being dated variously between 5000-1000 B.C. This indicates that the term ‘Hindu’ is as old as the word ‘Sindhu.’ Sindhu is a Vedik term used in the Rigveda. And therefore, ‘Hindu’ is as ancient as the Rigveda.

In the Avestan Gatha ‘Shatir’, 163rd Verse speaks of the visit of Veda Vyas to the court of Gustashp and in the presence of Zorashtra, Veda Vyas introduces himself saying ‘man marde am Hind jijad.’ (I am man born in ‘Hind.’) Veda Vyas was an elder contemporary of Shri Krishna (3100 B.C.).

Greek Usage

The Greek term ‘Indoi’ is a softened form of ‘Hindu’ where the initial ‘H’ was dropped as the Greek alphabet has no aspirate. This term ‘Indoi’ was used in Greek literature by Hekataeus (late 6th century B.C.) and Herodotus (early 5th century B.C.), thus establishing that the Greeks were using this derivative of ‘Hindu’ as early as 6th century B.C.

The Hebrew Bible

The Hebrew bible uses ‘Hodu’ for India, which is a Judaic form of ‘Hindu’. The Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) is considered earlier than 300 B.C. Today’s Hebrew spoken in Israel also uses Hodu for India.

The Chinese Testimony

The Chinese used the term ‘Hien-tu’ for ‘Hindu’ about 100 B.C.11 While describing movements of the Sai-Wang (100 B.C.), the Chinese annals state that the Sai-Wang went towards the South and passing Hien-tu reached Ki-Pin.

Later Chinese travellers Fa-Hien (5th century A.D.) and Huen-Tsang (7th century A.D.) use a slightly modified term ‘Yintu’ but the affinity to ‘Hindu’ is still retained. This term ‘Yintu’ continues to be used till today

Pre-Islamic Arabic Literature

Sair-ul-Okul is an anthology of ancient Arabic poetry available in the Turkish library Makhtab-e-Sultania in Istanbul. In this anthology is included a poem by Prophet Mohammed’s uncle Omar-bin-e-Hassham. The poem is in praise of Mahadev (Shiva), and uses ‘Hind’ for India and ‘Hindu’ for Indians. Some verses are quoted below:

Wa Abaloha ajabu armeeman Mahadevo Manojail ilamuddin minhum wa sayattaru
If but once one worships Mahadev with devotion, One will attain the ultimate salvation.

Wa sahabi Kay yam feema Kamil Hinda e Yauman, Wa Yakulam na latabahan foeennak Tawajjaru. (Oh Lord grant me but one day’s sojourn in Hind, Where one can attain spiritual bliss.)

Massayare akhalakan hasanan Kullahum, Najumam aja at Summa gabul Hindu.
(But one pilgrimage there gets one all merit, And the company of great Hindu saints.)

The same anthology has another poem by Labi-bin-e Akhtab bin-e Turfa who is dated 2300 years before Mohammed i.e. 1700 B.C. This poem also uses ‘Hind’ for India and ‘Hindu’ for Indian. The poem also mentions the four Vedas Sama, Yajur, Rig and Athar. This poem is quoted on columns in the Laxmi Narayan Mandir in New Delhi, popularly known as Birla Mandir (Temple)

Some verses are as follows:

Aya muwarekal araj yushaiya noha minar Hinda e, wa aradakallha manyonaifail jikaratun. (Oh the Divine land of Hind, blessed art thou, thou art chosen land showered with divine knowledge.)

Wahalatjali Yatun ainana sahabi akhatun jikra, Wahajayahi yonajjalur rasu minal Hindatun. (That celetial knowledge shines with such brilliance, Through the words of Hindu saints in fourfold abundance.)

Yakuloonallaha ya ahlal araf alameen kullahum, fattabe-u jikaratul Veda bukkun malam yonajjaylatun. (God enjoins on all, follow with devotion, path shown by Veda with divine percept.)

Wahowa alamus Sama wal Yajur minallahay Tanajeelan, Fa e noma ya akhigo mutibayan Yobasshariyona jatun. (Overflowing with knowledge are Sama and Yajur for Man, Brothers, follow the path which guides you to salvation.)

Wa isa nain huma Rig Athar nasahin ka Khuwatun, Wa asanat Ala-udan wabowa masha e ratun (Also the two Rig and Athar(va) teach us fraternity, taking shelter under their lusture, dispels darkness.)

‘Hindu’ in Sanskrit Literature

Another doubt created by the modern day anglicized historian is that the term ‘Hindu’ is not found used in Sanskrit literature. This misconception can be dispelled by quoting from Sanskrit works15 : Meru tantra (es#rU=) (4th to 6th century A.D.), a Shaiva text, comments on ‘Hindu’.

 Hindu is one who discards the mean and the ignoble.

The same idea is expressed in Shabda Kalpadruma.

Brihaspati Agam says,

 Starting from Himalaya up to Indu waters is this God-created country Hindustan

Parijat Haran Natak describes Hindu as,

Hindu is one who with penance washes one’s sins and evil thoughts and with arms destroys one’s enemies.

Madhava Digvijaya states,

One who meditates on Omkar as the primeal sound, believes in karma & reincarnation, has reverence for the cow, who is devoted to Bharat, and abhors evil, is deserving of being called Hindu.

Vriddha Smriti defines Hindu as,

One who abhors the mean and the ignoble, and is of noblebearing, who reveres the Veda, the cow, and the deity, is a Hindu.

Similarly other Sanskrit works which use the term ‘Hindu’ are, Kalika Puran, Bhavishya Puran, Adbhut Kosh, Medini Kosh, Ram Kosh etc. Even Kalidas has used a derivative form ‘Haindava.’

‘Hindu’ and ‘Sindhu’

Another theory says that ‘Hindu’ originated from the Persian practice of replacing ‘S’ with ‘H’. This does not seem to be true is evident from the fact that Sindh has not become Hind and both Sindh and Hind exist in Persian as well as Arabic.
The inscriptions of Darius and Xerexes which describe India as Hi(n)du, also use the term ‘Sugd’ for Sogdiana. This ‘Sugd’ should have become ‘Hugd’ as per this theory. The Pahlvi inscription of Shahpur II, uses ‘S’ in Shakastan and Tuxaristan.

But it cannot be denied that Hindu is a form of Sindhu. It needs to be realised that this change from S to H is common in Saurashtra where Sorath becomes Horath, Somnath becomes Homnath and so on. The form Hindu is therefore, likely to have come from Saurashtra.

It should also be noted that as per Nirukta rules of grammar, in the Vedik language, replacement of S with H is permitted


Epigraphic evidence takes the antiquity of ‘Hindu’ back to at least 500 B.C. Use of ‘Hindu’ as part of ‘Hapta-Hindu’ in the Avesta suggests that ‘Hindu’ is as old as ‘Sindhu’ and therefore, belongs to the Vedic age. Regarding the origin of ‘Hindu’ from ‘Sindhu’, the Saurashtran practice of pronouncing ‘H’ in place of ‘S’ provides the answer.



Filed under Uncategorized

79 responses to “How Old is the Word ‘Hindu’?

  1. karam c ramrakha

    Yes, the late Professor P N Oak who strongly defended the indigenous origin of the word Hindu opined that it was a corruption of Indu or the Moon goddess.. good article

    • rubbish, whosoever wrote this , most certainly is either a a Gujarati or some Hindutava supporter.
      It is a well established fact that IS A PERSIAN WORD and does not come from Rig-Veda ( suppose hymn 43).
      The word is a geographical term , normally referred to people living that side of Sindh or Indus river. Persians were the first to use it and it referred to mostly north Indians or Punjab( Both East and West and that includes Haryana, Delhi and Rajasthan.
      The name for India in India in Indian language or correct name is Bharat or Bharat Varsh , which comes after the name of Bharat, brother of Rama, as his tribe was the largest at that time.

      Hindu and Hindustan are both of foreign origin. Can any body enlighten me , how is Hindustan a Sanskrit or Vedic term.
      Thank you

  2. Anonymous

    Although Wikipedia is a collective of opinions from many different people, and is not necessarily authoritative, the Wikipedia description of Hinduism is revealing. Here are a few excerpts from the Wikipedia page on Hinduism:

    Hindū is the Persian name for the Indus River, first encountered in the Old Persian word Hindu, corresponding to Vedic Sanskrit Sindhu, the Indus River….

    The term was used for those who lived in the Indian subcontinent on or beyond the “Sindhu”….

    The Persian term (Middle Persian Hindūk, New Persian Hindū) entered India with the Delhi Sultanate and appears in South Indian and Kashmiri texts from at least 1323 CE, and increasingly so during British rule.

    Since the end of the 18th century the word has been used as an umbrella term for most of the religious, spiritual, and philosophical traditions of the sub-continent, excluding the distinct religions of Sikhism, Buddhism, and Jainism.

    The term Hindu was introduced to the English. It generally denotes the religious, philosophical, and cultural traditions native to India.

    Hinduism has been perceived as one of the world religions we know today only since the 19th century, when the term ‘Hindu-ism’ started being used by leaders of Hindu reform movements or revivalists, and, often considered to be biased, Western orientalists or the “first Indologists”.

    From the western point of view, the understanding of Hinduism was mediated by Western notions of what religion is and how it relates to more ancient forms of belief. It is further complicated by the frequent use of the term “faith” as a synonym for “religion”.

    RETHINKING RELIGION IN INDIA: The colonial construction of Hinduism

    All of the quotes below are excerpted from the above titled book, which was published in January 2010. I include these quotes so as to touch on the controversy over the possible “construction” of Hinduism, particularly in the past couple hundred years, and how this may not relate to any traditional realities in the region known as either modern India or the Indian subcontinent. The book is a collection of articles/chapters from nine different authors. This is an academic publication and is rather expensive (I paid $114 for a copy through Amazon), though it is extremely insightful if you wish to explore this issue more closely. This is the finest overall summary of the issue that I have encountered.


    The preface of the book is written by Rajaram Hegde, Shankaraghatta, India, June 2009.

    It is becoming increasingly clear today that the term ‘religion’ and its cognates like ‘worship’, ‘secularism’, or ‘religious freedom’ fail to make sense to Indian minds….

    I gradually started to realize that I could neither fully understand nor participate in the debates and theory building on ‘religion’ and ‘secularism’, because they were completely unrelated to my lived experience. I had never seen a phenomenon like Hinduism, the religion to which I was supposed to belong. No one in my family or the traditional society in which I grew up had instructed me about any such thing called ‘Hindu dharma’ and its characteristic features. It was only through my school education that I learned about this ‘Hinduism’, which is supposed to consist of religious scriptures called the Vedas and the Bhagavad-Gita, beliefs about reincarnation, social divisions called the four varnas and things like ashramas.

    Sharing my experience with friends, colleagues and acquaintances, I discovered that they too, without exception, had similar experiences.

    At the Center for the study of Local Cultures at Kuvempu University, we conducted a field study, which confirmed that even the college-educated in Karnataka fail to figure out what this Hindu dharma is, once they forget their textbook lessons in the process of living in the actual Indian society. Though they know the term ‘dharma’, they never use it in the sense of religion. Dharma is something like duty, good deeds and meritorious acts of human beings, to which gods are largely irrelevant. They find the term ‘Hindu’ every peculiar. Those who happen to remember this term do not know its precise meaning or implications. They say that they learned about things like Hindu dharma, the four varnas, the four Vedas etc. in school. They still remember these terms, they add, because of seeing them repeated in newspapers and hearing them used by politicians and social activists….

    If the common experience of Indians does not know of any such thing as Hinduism, what are these ‘religions’ that we have been trying to investigate for all these years? Why is it that social science research brushes aside this experience, as though it is without value or importance? Why is it that these peculiar concepts and vocabulary are being forced upon us as truths about our society that we all have to accept? What is the nature of this ‘religion’ that we see and judge in the name of secularism or Hindu nationalism?

  3. Avinash

    Is there any need to prove How Old is the Word ‘Hindu’ when it is the third largest Religion in the world with over a billion followers? Homo Sapien Sapiens have existed on Planet Earth for more than 75,000 years. The West Asian Religions originated about 2000 years and 1400 years back only.

    • Rita

      Some people have this obsession/desire to prove that Indians, Hindus, Hind, Vedas….all came into being without any help from the west. One way or the other, humans have always interacted and learned from each other…nothing ever comes into being without interaction. Civilizations and cultures, rise and fall as the ‘chakra of Kaal’ predicts. Right now “Kalyug” has taken hold of our civilization and it’s decaying fast. We should put all our energies in fighting that and not the west..and each other.

      • Indian Realist

        Exactly what “help” was this from the West that allowed Hindus and Vedas to come into being? Are you retarded?

        • pradeep

          Indian Realist you beauty! what a reply. There are many an educated Rita’s today who donot have an iota of knowledge about their own religion and its glories, their only qualification being their expertise in licking western boots

        • Rita

          Well, not really retarded…..but I read Tilak’s ‘Artic Home’ and it made a lot of sense…in fact fascinating! Certainly, he was writing from having read the vedas and extensive research on hindu scriptures. His ‘Orion’ theory is also fascinating. These books are easily available on internet..I could send you the links…if you like. Also, Swami Vivekanand has some wonderful views on Hinduism.

          • As far as I know, only the Indians have succeeded in defining the true nature of the Self. The Self (atman) as Pure Consciousness has not been conceived in any Western philosophy or Theology that I have read (and I have read quite a bit of philosophy, starting with Socrates). The RC Church certainly doesn’t speak of the Self, the Muslims don’t either. Remove the notion of the Self in Hinduism and you have destroyed Hinduism. Yet, it is the awareness of the true nature of the Self that will ultimately save us the utter destruction we are facing from a purely empirical world-view or a religious view that reduces the human Being to a finite ‘soul’ that must struggle in order to gain redemption from its wicked ways and that must constantly suffer trying to reach a God that it can never merge with. I’ll stick with Hinduism and the Upanishads all the way.

      • …Nothing ever comes into being without interaction…:)
        Can u please cite the source of this sentence. jo mann me aya bol diya. sudhar jao.

        • Rita

          Sudhar jao to aise bol rahe hain aap jaise hum bigde hue hain..aur aap ko pata hai 🙂

        • Rita

          Nothing to cite, Rajesh. in my sixty years on this earth there isn’t one thing that I have learned without interacting…..starting with my parents, teachers, gurus…….

  4. good article, BUT..
    how r we going to benefit from this…we are not propagating it adequately..even among so called hindus we have many misconceptions prevailing. also What about the big-bang theory & Darwin’s theory that man came from monkeys…

  5. Hinduism is as old as the primitive man!

    If we accept this as a religious truth, for there seems to be no reason why we should not, then the Vedic religion, which is a precursor of the present day Hinduism, should have its antecedents rooted in the prehistoric times, when the aboriginal men were slowly stretching their minds to understand the mysteries of their own existence and the mysteries of the world around them!
    We (HINDU) do not have creator god like abrahamic religions, behaving like a inhuman .
    Does abrahamic god feel lonely that he asks his dumb followers to convert non followers to his religion just to feel accompanied?.
    What does abrahamic god gain/lose (from non-believers , converts or so-called true followers) mentally/physically that he gets angry so much so that he curses/punishes nonbelievers or likes so much that he grants paradises and other lusty stuff to believers.
    isnt he just like a demi god?? or even worse a satan and he is like an egoist.
    So,on the need to revive the Hindu (temple)culture means to revive the primitive culture( to save the mankind from abrahamic religions),a continues process to understand the mysteries of our own existence and the mysteries of the world around us!!

  6. Europe’s largest Hindu temple was opened in Britain UK – the site of a former landfill. Over 10,000 visitors are expected from £ 6.5 million Sri Venkateswara Balaji Temple in Tividale, near Dudley, West Midlands, The complex is built on 12.5 hectares of wasteland in an industrial area near the M5 motorway.
    Hinduism ,a religion of primitive man exploring the mysteries of our own existence and the mysteries of the world around us:-


    • IndianOcean

      Yes, I visited this temple which is located in outskirts of Birmingham. Quite nice. You can see the respect given to all the other religions there.

  7. nitha

    In India demoralization has taken place over centuries and it was well planned to make Hindus forget their hisory to the extent that they cannot think logically on that subject.
    It is a fact that both Christianity and Islam came to India through Invasion and violent campaigns.
    It is also a fact that History was written in the courts of Muslim rulers and also by British.
    It would be better for historians to acknowledge the facts and the misfortunes that occur during invasion .
    No community or individual that has suffered invasion will think great about the invaders.
    So it is natural for Hindus to not feel very great about islamic monuments or British structures.

    It is time to rewrite the history not in” Hindu prospective ” , but in” real prospective”.
    Because ,Satyameva Jayate ( means ONLY TRUTH PREVAILS) is our national motto.

  8. Mukool

    Seriously! In today’s global reality, do you still require a crutch of Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and so on, to identify yourself! Learn from your history and cultural past, but don’t live in it!

    • som

      Today’s global reality
      The holocaust museums of abrahmanic cult operators victims – Native Indians, Mayans, Mexicans, Latin Americans, African Americans, aborigines of Congo, Hindus, Kashmiri Hindu Pundits or others subjected to genocides – are never to be found because the facts are heavily hidden in the distorted and twisted history written by their own adherents or political sympathisers. They also have the political power to keep such monuments or museums from being built or even photographs and historical records being exhibited publicly. Their political influence on the political powers and royalties beginning with the Roman empire of Constantine continues to this day.
      These abrahmanic cult operators have been bullied for the last two millennia by the aggressive proselytizing empire building religions. Mass conversions under allurements, duress or deceit are still the order of the day and are supported and heavily financed by so-called “civilized” people who feel it is their duty to their religion and God to harvest more and more souls for engulfment by churches or mosques and to send them to their respective heavens in the afterlife. This is rationalized as offering “freedom of religion” to populations following other religions.

      China and Russia have recognized the mischief these aggressive proselytizing religions can play in their countries if given a free rein under freedom of religion, which actually means freedom to proselytize and demographically attack the host society.
      So,seriously! In today’s global reality, we do still require ethos -the fundamental character or spirit of a culture; the underlying sentiment that informs the beliefs, customs, or practices of a group or society; dominant assumptions of a people or period( not crutch ) of Hinduism, to identify ourself!
      We should explore our real history and cultural past, and try to understand what mistakes had been committed by our ancestors that made our civilization in such bad shape!

      • @Som
        Who are these abrahmanic cult operators? Are we confident our ancestors were not one of them?
        Our genocidal cyclic reality supposedly started 30,000 years back, from the time humans evolved into Homo sapiens and exterminated Neanderthals,
        Regardless of any culture, religion or race, all our ancestors have been killers and victims.
        Victims of today were also the oppressors of the past and could very well become oppressors of tomorrow! It is true that victors write history, but in today’s global reality, we all have open access to immense amount of information, essentially negating one-sided biased accounts.
        Along with genocide of Native Americans, South Americans, Aborigines of Australia by the Europeans, history also tells us about Bantu’s aggressive and violent expansion in Africa, subduing, killing, exterminating other African tribes, the Aztec (indigenous Mexicans) methods of slavery and human sacrifice, the systematic destruction of Buddhist culture by the Hindu priestly caste of Brahmans 1000 years back, the various Muslim invasions of Indian subcontinent, our own shameful behavior during partition, Mumbai riots, Gujarat riots. The list is endless and all it tells us that nobody has a claim to sainthood.
        Today’s right is tomorrow wrong, situations change, realities change!

        The dominance of today power brokers, didn’t begin with the Roman empire of Constantine, it began with the first advent of Agriculture in the fertile crescent 13,000 years back, leading to densely populated cities supporting specialists, leading to rapid technological growth in travel systems, weaponry and centralized governance system, leading to Sumerian, Greek, Chinese, Indus and Roman civilizations. And by stroke of fortune of being in a right geographical location (east-west continental axis), Roman Empire seems to have influenced the present world domination.

        Which cult or group, however small has not aspired to become empire builders! Have we forgotten the Chandragupta, Ashoka, Akbar, Shivaji and the massive Maratha empire?
        Ashoka became Buddhist, promoted Buddhism, because just like Constantine with his Christianity, he saw the value of governance of a vast forcibly acquired empire, with one single homogenous religion. Are we confident that this transition from varied Vedic, Shaivik, Vaishnav and numerous other forgotten sects to Buddhism was peaceful? Mass conversions under allurements, duress or deceit would have been very common and within millennia, the same thing was repeated again with Sungas promoting Brahmanism, destroying 1000 years of Buddhist culture and bringing in inherently divisive and ultimately demeaning Hindu caste system.

        Yes, organized religions have historically and even today cause mischief and so does any other system of governance and communal systems. China, Russia and don’t forget North Korea, just adopted another religion – communism and nothing changed, probably got worse. The mass disappearances and execution of Russians during Stalin’s rule is well documented and so is ongoing genocide in Tibet by China!

        100 years back and beyond, understanding ourselves on a global level was not easily possible.
        In today’s reality, with the immense amount of information on Internet, live exposures to the global events through television, gigantic strides in technology and science is showing us that that we are all same; we are not Christians, nor Muslims, nor Hindus, nor Buddhists, nor democrats, nor communists! We are just Humans species, who breathe oxygen, have red blood, have opposing thumbs, can walk upright, have capacity to learn and evolve, are aggressively violent and passively loving at the same time, with an inherent need for survival in any way possible, but ultimately die!

        We are born into a culture, a group, and a society and are influenced by the beliefs, customs, and practices of the same. There was a time, when geographical, economical, technological barriers kept us isolated and at the mercy of the advanced, more aggressive civilizations!
        To survive, I had no option, but to be a part of group, a culture, a society and hope for best!
        In today global reality, I also have an option of being a global citizen, respecting everyone’s belief, traditions, cultures, my environment / earth, without being bound by any one particular cult, sect, belief system, culture and create my own identity, my own individual culture, my own ethos, live the life I want, be where i want to be. So, yes, in today’s global reality, I personally don’t need to be Hindu or a Muslim or a Christian; I am and can be, what I am!

        • som

          @Mukul Matey
          “Victims of today were also the oppressors of the past and could very well become oppressors of tomorrow! ”
          This is universal truth.
          But,a cult ,religion society ,civilization ,thought process,culture,believe system, world order could not be acceptable universally.
          India never imposed HINDU WORLD ORDER,OR VAIDIC WORLD ORDER.
          Is it safe to say that only Hindus in India can defend freedom for all, or do we need intellectuals(read secularist) and the State to do it for us?

          On the continuity of Hindu (old )civilization, it has lasted for 8000 years(?), so is it fair to assume it would continue for at least another few centuries?

          • ravi

            If it is this History hindus are ashamed off or if one still think the past bloodshed has nothing to do with present day crisis then I must Congratulate them. It is not that the Hindus were Coward.
            We are reminded about the incident when general Dier cold bloodedly Murdered some thousands of peaceful protestants but nowhere do we find a place in History where Timur The Lame put across the sword more than One Lakh of Non Combatant Hindus In a Single day and the cries of the women being raped all over the streets….for 1000years we were subjected to the worst and the biggest Genocide the world had ever seen but little does it reflect in our History Textbooks
            I am not here to spit venom of the past but I am just here to say with deep regret that India failed to learn a lesson from the past….No average Indian knows anything beyond the glorified Sultanates, Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and the fight against British raj….
            Muslims will never feel guilty of the past they will never accept the temples were broken and the womens Raped…
            It is just a wait and watch game till they gain a bit of majority.
            Muslims will rule again one day…. And the West will study us with the subject- Lessons not Learn or the example of a Failed Nation.

            India Was Great, India is Great but I doubt India would Remain forever great in the hands of the people who dig its own Grave.

          • Mukul Matey

            All cults, religions, civilization, thought processes, culture, belief systems, world orders are small and big systems for governance of a society and its simplicity or complexity depends on the number of people in that society. We are living in a world with new religions of capitalism, communism and their various derivatives.
            These new religions have already implemented international laws governing the use of Internet, Satellites, Airspace, Travel, Space, Armaments, Fossil fuels, environment and more!
            These new world religions are already dominating our everyday life, with us wearing pants – shirts for clothes, satellites, mobiles, internet for instantaneous communications, Coca Cola, Pepsi for drinks, MacDonald’s, KFC for food, fast air conditioned cars, buses, trains, aircrafts for quick travel anywhere in the world, English as the major business language and more!
            As all things in nature evolve, so have our cultures. Hinduism, Christianity, Islam were or are not independent of these evolutions. At best we can say that Hindus have become capitalist Hindus, Muslims have become capitalist Muslims and so on. As a country, India has a clear 80% Hindu majority, for what it is worth! For first time in the 8000-year-old history of Indian subcontinent, there is one single coherent pro capitalist Hindu governing body!
            As a subcontinent India, hosted various civilizations and empires. Our sub continental history starts with Indus valley (or Saraswati valley as some argue), Vedic, Brahmanism, Dravidian, Buddhist, Hinduism, Muslim-Mughal and ends with British Raj + 560 defragmented princely states of varied cultures / reglious beliefs! Our historical records show that as a subcontinent, there was rarely one coherent, decisive, political culture, which controlled the entire subcontinent. Those that came nearest in their efforts to govern the largest portions were Maurayan empire (promoted Buddhism), Gupta empire (promoted pro Brahman Hinduism), Mughal empire (largely pro Islam) and British Raj (Promoted capitalism). Marathas, although powerful and dominant for a short period, were inherently defragmented within their ranks. Looking at our 8000-year history of the Indian sub continent, what we see are large periods of disunity and warfare between multitudes of diverse city-states, chiefdoms and tribes.
            The concept of India as one country was probably formulated less 100 years back for the first time and came into being 65 years back with merging of uncountable potpourri of traditions, cultures and belief systems with nothing but a flag, a anthem and a language, which incidentally is even now, spoken by only 50 % of Indians.
            We say Hindu civilization has lasted for 8000 years! By the same logic, all European, Americans, Australians, New Zealanders, Canadians, European South Americans, Egyptians, can say that they are also a 8000-year-old culture, by identifying their origins with Sumerian civilization. Yes, they imposed their cultures on others, but so did the Indians. From 5th to 15th Century AD, Southern kingdoms and their chartered trading companies, similar to the British East India company, established bases, colonized and brought in Hindu or Buddhist influence all over South East Asia – Burma, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Borneo, Cambodia, Vietnam, Japan and more! Tamil descendents of these colonists are still living in countries like Malayasia, Indonesia, Borneo.
            In “Colonial and Cultural Expansion (of Ancient India)”, written by R. C. Majumdar, concluded with: “We may conclude with a broad survey of the Indian colonies in the Far East. For nearly fifteen hundred years, and down to a period when the Hindus had lost their independence in their own home (during the time of Buddhism), Hindu kings were ruling over Indo-China and the numerous islands of the Indian Archipelago, from Sumatra to New Guinea. Indian religion, Indian culture, Indian laws and Indian government molded the lives of the primitive races all over this wide region, and they imbibed a more elevated moral spirit and a higher intellectual taste through the religion, art, and literature of India. In short, the people were lifted to a higher plane of civilization.”
            This sounds exactly like a 19th century European colonist saying that they were born to rule over the uncivilized primitive people (Indians?)
            So, yes, Indians, just like Europeans and Muslims, did at one point or another in their vast defragmented history imposed their ‘world order’ on others outside of the Indian subcontinent.
            One day, probably not in my lifetime, more and more people will realize that we are trying to imprison ourselves in our confused conflicted past, instead of learning from it and moving ahead to accepting the inevitable new world religions of capitalism or to some extent communism, until the essential idea of freedom and the systemic / religious expression evolves to something else!

            • som

              @Mukul Matey
              You know number of genocides( an example of capitalism blended with racist so called religious theology or ideology) for land and resource hunger ,crusade (holy war) had been operated by so called KNIGHTS OF EUROPE in entire Europe ,Africa ,America,Australia,new Zealand etc.

              You know number of genocides( another best example of capitalism perfectly blended with racist so called religious theology or ideology) for land and resource hunger Jihad (holy war) had been operated by so called JIHADI OF ARABIA in entire Europe Asia ,North Africa etc.
              You know genocides(20 man made major famine)during British raj for land and resource hunger had been operated by so called civilized Europeans(JUST another best example of capitalism blended with racist so called religious theology or ideology) . .

              You know,that naxalite movement( an example of communism perfectly blended capitalism with racist so called religious theology or ideology) in India based on maoist ideology (communism ) is actually related to evanglicalization (christinisation or surrogate westernization ) to acquire mineral rich area trying to break India into mutual hostile camps for resource greed of pro colonial western agents.
              You also know that China(communist) expansionist policy( an example of communism blended with colonial racist capitalist ideology) is nothing but expansionist policy of Han tribes.

              So,these modern ideologies(capitalism or communism) are perfectly blended with racist,religious theology or ideology with colonial interest are now operational in full swing.

              One day, probably (WHO KNOWS???), more and more people will realize that capitalism or communism are merely tools to confused masses to relate themselves with these ideology with food ,employment ,better livelihood etc.that they are trying to imprison themselves these pro materialistic PRO RACIST ,GENOCIDAL ,GEO -POLITICAL ideology , instead of that ,(may be) moving ahead to accepting VAIDIC CONCEPT OF PRO SPIRITUAL DRHARMIC (NOT RELIGIOUS) CONCEPT BASED ON YOGA,MEDITATION,SELF REALIZATION, RESPECT TO NATURE ,RIVERS ,PLANTS ,ANIMALS ETC.

              • Mukul Matey

                I know and agreed! ‘these modern ideologies(capitalism or communism) are perfectly blended with racist,religious theology or ideology with colonial interest are now operational in full swing’ and Hinduism of today along with all the major religious beliefs is a irrevocable blended part of these ideologies. No ideologies, belief systems, religions are stand alone, isolated processes. At any given moment in history and present, they would always be a blended diffused forms of other influential forms.
                As you say, one day more and more people will realize that capitalism or communism are tools for exploitation of the masses or may be we have already realized that and still have no other choice, but to accept the same.
                We have already accepted, it because we are utilizing the fruits of these system, by traveling on the tar roads in fast air conditioned cars, buses, bikes, using the electricity to power our homes (and the computer for continuing this interesting discourse), using the global business language (English) and even insisting that our children learn the same, buying ready made synthetic clothes over making our own clothes from natural fibres, buying and eating genetically modified ‘good looking’ food items over natural organic food grown in our backyards, entertaining ourselves with movies and Television programs promoting and celebrating these ideologies, drinking bottled water (Bisleri?), using deodorants, synthetic oil soaps, using mobiles,internet and the list is endless.
                We, as people, are we willing to let go of these ‘benefits’ of these ideologies? No system of living, whether it is Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Capitalism, Communism is perfect. All of them by themselves or blended, come with their own goods and evils! If we don’t want the evils (Genocide, environmental degradation, exploitation) of these systems, we should also let go of our mobiles, TV’s, clothes, food, travel, resign from our jobs, stop our businesses, stop earning the capitalist money! Are you willing to do that?
                Are you confident in your rose tinted belief in a 5000 year old Vaidic concept? By that logic, conceptually, even Marx’s Das Kapital looks good, but we all have seen the degradation of humanity by practicing communists! And what about the indigenous Dravidian cultures (Shivaites?), which were driven, pushed, influenced, conquered by the Aryans with their Vaidic belief system. Do you believe that it was a peaceful, non-violent, no exploited transition, happening one fine Sunday morning, next to Indus river bank, with respective gods present, with blissful welcoming smiles, shaking hands over a mutually beneficial transaction of ideologies and traditions!
                There is no they and us. You can’t divest yourself from the present ideologies of capitalist or communist systems. You and I, are already pro-materialistic individuals with our clothes, mobiles, laptops, furniture, microwaves, cooking gas, international travels, movies, languages, educational aspiration, bank loans, credit cards, flats / apartments, fixed deposits, jewellery, cars, real estate assets and are equally responsible for the genocides, exploitation, environmental degradation of other human beings and our environment, in our immediate part, present and future!
                We don’t have any moral right to raise our hands and blame ‘others’ – colonial powers, capitalists, government, gods and delude ourselves in thinking that i am ‘good’, because i come from conceptually peaceful Hindu or Vaidic culture. There is no ‘they’. We are ‘they’!!!
                There are no answers, especially in 5000 year old belief systems! We all are doomed with our capitalist, consumerist’s habits and the only thing i can do now, is to stop blaming ‘others’, minimize my impact on my fellow humans & environment and keep my fingers crossed that the world doesn’t end in my lifetime (or tomorrow – 21st Dec)

            • raj

              There is no difference between racism , communism and abrahmanic religions .
              A follower of racist , communist and abrahmanic religion, just following the teachings of Mein Kampf, Das Kapital and the Hebrew and arabic version .

        • Anonymous

          Sir i read de article carefully……and I feel u said the truth……

    • karan

      Members of the Hindu community in Bangladesh have lost 26 million acres of land from 1965 to 2006, while many others were forced to leave the country from 1964 to 2001 because of the communal conflicts and deprivation caused by the Act. The Hindu population percentage has reduced dramatically in the last 60 years.

      • kalki

        brahmins are not hindus. they are persians. and sanskrit is a persian language. tamil is the oldest language

        • John

          You are wrong,
          Nobody is Hindu.
          Brahmin are persian,rest are dravid ,Dravidian are Christian.
          In future only one culture will exist ,that is
          Dravidian Christianity.

        • Indian Realist

          Kalki, which weed are you snorting these days? Do you have some minimum standards of proof that you demand to accept an argument, or does anything goes on the days when you are smoking chillum?

  9. som

    @Mukul Matey,
    Do you know that
    Barely seven years after Prof. B B Lal penned “The Sarasvati Flows On: The Continuity of Indian Culture” (2002)[ also at Nausharo in pre-partition India (now Pakistan), French excavator Jean-Francois Jarrige], the defiantly-in-denial UPA has been forced to admit the existence of the Pre Harappan civilization- the Vaidic Saraswati Civilisation-the oldest civilisation of India, supporting this bold hypothesis is powerful evidence from hydrology, geology, literature, archaeology and radiocarbon dating, in response to a parliamentary question, the government revealed that a study by scientists of ISRO, Jodhpur, and the Rajasthan Government’s Ground Water Department has found irrefutable evidence of palaeo-channels and archaeological sites of pre-Harappan, Harappan and post-Harappan ages, indicating the existence of a mighty river matching descriptions of the Saraswati in Vedic literature.
    But who were these Vedic people ?
    Were they Aryan invaders as we were taught in school, or indigenous ancestors whose achievements were ‘stolen’ by ascribing them to so-called Aryans, a people who have left no traces of like achievements in any of the lands from where they supposedly descended upon the Indian plains?
    This era also created the ploughshare and spoked wheel, the tandoor and roti, chulha and chapatti, and pots and pans and other vessels of daily use.
    But, who were these Vedic people ?
    There was a rich industry in bead-making, shell, ivory-working, mainly copper and bronze, though gold and silver ornaments had also arrived.
    Truly a Golden Age. The only thing missing is the inscrutable script, surely a precursor to Brahmi, the language that developed later!
    This is augmented by the famous limestone statuette of the Mohenjo-daro priest-king, with his eyes introvert and eyelids half-closed, a meditative form later associated with Buddhist tradition, especially in Tibet and China.
    Yet this form of dhyana is mentioned in the Bhagvadgita (ch. 6, verse 13) which states that the gaze should be fixed on the tip of the nose!
    Town planning, especially given the chaos in our cities today, will remain ancient India’s greatest contribution to civilisation. Be it Kalibangan, or Sisupalgarh near Bhubaneshwar, Orissa, the grid pattern with streets running north-south and east-west was the rage. This, it is pertinent, was an era in which Egypt or Mesopotamia (the West’s favourite ‘cradle’ of civilisation) had no notion of such town planning – which must be conceded was original to India. To cap it all, there were covered drains and manholes for discharge of sullage.
    Bricks were kiln-fired, and there was bonding, with bricks laid out in alternate courses – length-wise and breadth-wise – for strong walls, way back in the third millennium BCE. And clay floors were soled with fragments of terracotta nodules and large pieces of charcoal – to absorb moisture, prevent dampness travelling up the walls, and inhibiting termites!
    But, who were these Vedic people ?
    It is now conclusively established that there was no Aryan Invasion, or even Migration (the current theory). What does remain, however, is a West-led mental resistance to accepting the indigenous origins of the Vedic (Hindu) religion, culture, and civilisation.

    Do you know that
    The Rigveda hymns and unearths the geographical evidence (names of animals, places and rivers) it contains to show how their composers are gradually moving from the east (the area around western UP) to the West (eastern and southern Afghanistan). It can be concluded based on this clear and unambiguous evidence that can easily be cross-checked by anyone that the Rigvedic people were inhabiting the interior parts of India while composing the Early and the Middle books of Rigveda and slowly becoming acquanted with the areas to the west as the composition of the Rigveda progressed.

    This is a monumental work and formidable evidence that is very difficult to counter. The Early and Middle books of Rigveda mention the names of places, animals and rivers of north India while the Later books mention the names of rivers and animals of southern and eastern Afghanistan. How can this be possible if the so-called Aryans were marching from beyond Afghanistan into India?

    Is it any wonder that a British missionary immediately invented the word “Dravidian” and pitted these so-called Dravidians against the mythical “Aryans” still allegedly inhabiting north India.

    This is “Monkey Business of American Historians” to discover how this Aryan-Dravidian hogwash is even today being used to meet the geo-political objectives of the White man related to India.
    The Whites want south India badly.
    Do you know that
    • An Indian tragedy: Aryan invasion theory:
    Scientists had long ago dismissed the idea of the Aryan race .
    All this makes abundantly clear that theories based on the Aryan myth are modern European creations that have little to do with ancient India. The word Arya appears for the first time in the Rig Veda, India’s oldest text. Hitler did not invent it. The idea of Aryans as a superior race was already in the air— in Europe, not India.
    • An African tragedy: Tutsi invasion theory:
    When we look at the map of middle Africa, we see two little countries named Rwanda and Burundi, bordering on Zaire (or the Democratic Republic of Congo). As reported in the Western media, these countries are inhabited by two supposedly different ethnic groups, the so-called Hutus and Tutsis. The ethnic composition of these two countries is as follows.
    Rwanda: Hutu 84%, Tutsi 15%, Twa (Pygmies) 1%
    Burundi: Hutu 85%, Tutsi 14%, Twa 1%
    In other words, their compositions hardly differ at all. But according to Western anthropologists, mainly colonial bureaucrats and missionaries, the Tutsi are supposed to be a Hamitic people, a race that was often intermixed with the whiter races of the North, notably from Ethiopia and Egypt, which in their turn were intermixed with some West Asiatic people, mainly the Hittites, by repeated invasions from the North. These people, the Tutsis, are supposed to have arrived from the North and not native to Rwanda.
    This in essence is the Tutsi invasion theory, the African version of the Aryan invasion theory. The similarities are startling, even to the extent of the Dravidians in India being preceded by earlier inhabitants, the aborigines (the so-called adi-vasis), who have their African counterpart in the Pygmies. So we have the African Pygmy-Hutu-Tutsi sequence corresponding to the Indian aborigines-Dravidian-Aryan scheme.
    As with the Aryan theories and their various offshoots, this Tutsi-Hutu division has no factual basis. They speak the same language, have a long history of intermarriage and have many cultural characteristics in common. Differences are regional rather than racial, which they were not aware of until the Europeans made it part of their politics and propaganda.
    The explosion came following independence form colonial rule. Repeated violence after independence fueled this hatred driven by this supposed ethnic difference and the concocted history of the Tutsi invasion and oppression. Some 2.5 million people were massacred in this fratricidal horror of wars and genocides.
    Why did India not go the way of Rwanda-Burundi? Not for lack of trying but because the cultural foundation of Hinduism proved too strong. It defeated the designs of politicians and propagandists masquerading as scholars. It is no coincidence that Rwanda and Burundi had been converted to Christianity, preparing the ground for sectarian conflict. Several church figures, including priests and nuns have been found guilty of complicity in the Tutsi massacres. As in India, Christianity was a colonial tool and missionaries little more than imperial agents.

  10. Mukul

    Agree on all you said!
    But have you forgotten the partition, where more than 1.5 million (probably more) were killed? Our Hindu cultural foundation didn’t prevent some of us from killing and raping non-combatants. Still that was but a small dent in one of the largest population, concentrated in one sub continent and may have nothing to do with our culture, but more to do with sheer unending multitudes of people.
    And, yes i have heard, read about the Saraswati valley civilization, contradictions in theory of Aryans coming from west, versus coming east and more! Thanks for more details…still, they are conjectures, based on relative empirical evidences contradicting other theories, also with more empirical evidence. Although these theories, facts are interesting, the question is, what are we now? Does it really matter whether Aryans came from west or east or Dravidians were not dravidians! We are currently locked in a pro-capitalist pseudo religious materialistic culture all over the world regardless of which area of the world, we are born in! I can theoretically trace my ancestry to a 3500 year old Brahmanic king in central north India, but that doesn’t negate the fact that i am only a Hindu by accident of birth, but by character, habits, rituals, i am a 21st century materialistic, consumerist, person and so on. No Christian missionaries, Hindu evangelists, Islamic mullahs can ever convince me to convert, because i believe that the no one system or culture is good or evil.
    Today’s chaotic, materialistic culture has given me the freedom to form my own culture, systems and live the life as i want it. I don’t need the tenets of any religion or culture, but simple moral common sense tells me not to harm others or my environment unnecessarily.
    Although a interesting discourse, i feel now that we are going cyclic in endless facts, counter-facts, conjectures, theories. My simple question has always been – why do we need to identify ourselves with Hindu or any other cultural past, ethos in today’s reality? and conveniently ignore the chaotic realities and our responsibilities for the same.

  11. som

    Do you know that
    Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus are studies, which originated in India.* Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to mankind. The Father of Medicine, Charaka, consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago.* India was one of the richest countries till the time of British rule in the early 17th Century. Christopher Columbus, attracted by India’s wealth, had come looking for a sea route to India when he discovered America by mistake.The Art of Navigation & Navigating was born in the river Sindh over 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘NAVGATIH’. The word navy is also derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Nou’.Bhaskaracharya rightly calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the Sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. According to his calculation, the time taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun was 365.258756484 days.The value of “pi” was first calculated by the Indian Mathematician Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century, long before the European mathematicians.Quadratic Equations were used by Sridharacharya in the 11th century. The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10*53 (i.e. 10 to the power of 53) with specific names as early as 5000 B.C.during the Vedic period.Even today, the largest used number is Terra: 10*12(10 to the power of 12).Until 1896, India was the only source of diamonds in the world
    (Source: Gemological Institute of America).
    Sushruta is regarded as the Father of Surgery. Over2600 years ago Sushrata & his team conducted complicated surgeries like cataract, artificial limbs, cesareans, fractures, urinary stones, plastic surgery and brain surgeries.Usage of anaesthesia was well known in ancient Indian medicine. Detailed knowledge of anatomy, embryology, digestion, metabolism,physiology, etiology, genetics and immunity is also found in many ancient Indian texts.Varanasi, also known as Benaras, was called “the Ancient City” when Lord Buddha visited it in 500 B.C., and is the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world today.
    Martial Arts were first created in India, and later spread to Asia by Buddhist missionaries.Yoga has its origins in India and has existed for over 5,000 years.

  12. som

    “Why do we need to identify ourselves with Hindu or any other cultural past, ethos in today’s reality? and conveniently ignore the chaotic realities and our responsibilities for the same.”
    Only a Hindu can do that.
    Absolutely this is Hindu voice. This attitude came from ancestors .
    Simply ,such liberty is non existent in other religion.
    Even atheist are allowed in this religion(Charwak and Madhavacharya are
    the example)
    What a beautiful religion !!!

    • Mukul

      Comparing Hinduism to Islam and Christianity is like comparing a vast natural rain forest with planned gardens! Hinduism’s beauty in diversity is also its misfortune in being divided and vulnerable. And if every one is allowed in this ‘religion’, which is not a religion, why are we separating ourselves from the world?

  13. Mukul

    Are we falling into the trap of righteous pride based on the comparative achievements of our ancestors. For every fact you state, there would be some other, with counter-facts. And we can go on stating facts, figures…it doesn’t change the fact of what are you and I NOW? A product of morally corrupt, materialistic, consumerist hopeless global culture, going downhill on the path of destruction of ourselves and our planet, while we waste our time, bickering over who invented ‘Zero’.

  14. Don’t dwell on the past. Realize the Self now and move on. namashivaya.

    • ravi

      Nearly 200,000 Hindu families of Bangladesh have lost about 40,000 acres of land and houses in the last six years, ‘grabbed’ by politically powerful people, says a just concluded study. The study has found that the new occupants of land and property belong to all the mainstream parties – Sheikh Hasina’s Awami League, Khaleda Zia’s Bangladesh Nationalist Party, Jamaat-e-Islami and Jatiya Party.Abul Barkat, professor of economics at Dhaka University who conducted research on the subject, says some 1.2 million or 44 percent of the 270,000 Hindu households in the country were affected by the Enemy Property Act 1965, enacted during the Pakistan era, and its post-independence version – the Vested Property Act 1974.In 2001, the then government led by Awami League enacted the “Vested Property Return Act” to repeal the Vested Property Act with a view to restoring ownership of the lost land to many Hindu families. But no records have been prepared to enforce this law, according to the study.The move was then criticised as a ‘political tokenism’ aimed to appease minority voters prior to the general elections, New Age newspaper said Saturday.At the current market price, the value of the 2.2 million acres of land that the Hindu families were displaced from is nearly $4.22 billion, which is more than half of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP), says the study.”This is a man-made problem contrary to the spirit of humanity. We have to get rid of this uncivilised state of affairs to establish a civilised society. Otherwise, we have to face a bigger historic catastrophe,” Barkat states in the abridged version of his research paper, “Deprivation of Affected Million Families: Living with Vested Property in Bangladesh”, to be published in its entirety later.While trying to review the impact of the law on the land ownership of the Hindu community, Barkat has found that no list of the people evicted or the quantum of lands grabbed has been prepared till date.During the reign of the BNP-led alliance government (2001-06), 45 percent of the land grabbers were affiliated with BNP, 31 percent with Awami League, eight percent with Jamaat-e-Islami and six percent with Jatiya Party and other groups.Barkat mentions that the affected Hindu families met with more incidents of violence and repression in the five years of the BNP-led government than in the previous five years of the Awami League government.He dismisses the ‘Hindu versus Muslim’ polarisation in the problem and claims that it is an issue created by communal elements and vested interests groups.”Criminals do not bother whether a piece of land is owned by a Hindu or Muslim. They resort to easy means to loot property,” he adds.Bangladeshi Hindus loose property: studyDHAKA: Nearly 200,000 Hindu families of Bangladesh have lost about 40,000 acres of land and houses in the last six years, ‘grabbed’ by politically powerful people, says a just concluded study. The study has found that the new occupants of land and property belong to all the mainstream parties – Sheikh Hasina’s Awami League, Khaleda Zia’s Bangladesh Nationalist Party, Jamaat-e-Islami and Jatiya Party.Abul Barkat, professor of economics at Dhaka University who conducted research on the subject, says some 1.2 million or 44 percent of the 270,000 Hindu households in the country were affected by the Enemy Property Act 1965, enacted during the Pakistan era, and its post-independence version – the Vested Property Act 1974.In 2001, the then government led by Awami League enacted the “Vested Property Return Act” to repeal the Vested Property Act with a view to restoring ownership of the lost land to many Hindu families. But no records have been prepared to enforce this law, according to the study.The move was then criticised as a ‘political tokenism’ aimed to appease minority voters prior to the general elections, New Age newspaper said Saturday.At the current market price, the value of the 2.2 million acres of land that the Hindu families

  15. som

    “But have you forgotten the partition, where more than 1.5 million (probably more) were killed? Our Hindu cultural foundation didn’t prevent some of us from killing and raping non-combatants. Still that was but a small dent in one of the largest population, concentrated in one sub continent and may have nothing to do with our culture,”
    What a shameful religion !!!

  16. som

    “Our Hindu cultural foundation didn’t prevent some of us from killing and raping non-combatants.”
    Does any Hindu cultural foundation exists now-a-days.
    A Hindu is a Hindu only because he / she unequivocally and with full intellectual commitment rejects the notion of “only my God” of Semitic monotheists. Hence the Hindu is exhibiting uncompromising religious intolerance in not accepting such exclusive belief systems.

    Let us take a look at the Hindu’s utter insensitivity.
    Look at the way the Hindu indulges in outrageously mega celebrations of image worship – be it Mahamastakabhisheka, Amarnath Yatra or Puri Jagannath Rath. The Hindus do it day in and day out. Hindus worship the Sun, many hills and rivers, tress and even animals.

    Let us examine how communal the Hindu can get.
    (1)The Hindu asserts that the Hindu civilizational tradition is unique and has a special role to play in the world. And that it is distinct from Semitic systems or materialistic communism.
    (3)Look at the Kashmiri Pandits. If only they had not been stubbornly communal about their identity and had converted to Islam, they would not be suffering as refugees in their own ancient ancestral land.
    Hindus have no escape but to pay the price for all the three attributes.
    It goes to show that the Hindu have to get their act together, now!
    IN YOUR WORD “Hindu cultural foundation,” RIGHT???
    Did we get the point?

    • Since Everything has its Being in Brahman, the Sage, the Student, the Devotee can worship any aspect of Creation knowing that he is Worshipping Brahman, the Supreme Being. What could be more beautiful, devout or true than this? Hindus need to understand that ontologically Hinduism is miles ahead of the dualistic, monotheistic Western creeds. Let me remind readers, the followers of the monotheistic creeds — whether Muslim or Christian — are not in particularly good shape, either mentally, morally, physically or spiritually.

  17. m2K

    The word hindu was given by Arabs and there is no doubt about that since the old Arabs used to call this land as HIND and continue to call even today in arabic so naturally the people residing in this land were hindus to them. you might be surprised even today the arabs call the people hindus who come from here no matter they are HINDUS,MUSLIMS or Christians. its easy to be emotional and talk crap shit but its hard to do some thorough research in this matter and write even though it may go against our wimps and desires.

  18. it is easy to say that the word “Hindu” historically was a geographic, social, and cultural term. The Indic history is one of tremendous diversity of principles and practices, and has only recently in history been invented into the concept of a single, homogenized “religion” called “Hinduism”. If there is, in fact, no unified religion known as Hinduism.
    Hinduism could not be fitted in the parameter of abrahmanic religion ( its history centric-ism one book,one prophet,one geopolitical agenda,one central authority and the conversion mafia)

    Hindus have been playing the game by the rules set by their enemies. All the Congress party, the Left and other assorted opponents need to do is to pick a random issue, secularize it, and claim loudly that the Hindu nationalism is communal. What ensues then is predictable: the Hindu nationalist immediately goes on the defensive.
    Several pro-Hindu intellectuals and writers tried to steer the narrative towards a non-defensive position but their journey of a thousand miles hasn’t progressed even an inch. It was therefore really not a big surprise or a disappointment when these narrative-changers and/or new narrative shapers were effortlessly coopted by the wily purveyors of the age-old communal narrative shaped and peddled by the Congress party, the Left and the Islamic and Conversion mafia.

    • som

      When Western scholars and Christian missionaries arrived on the scene, the Hindus found their faith tradition ‘ism’-ized and its name became ‘Hinduism’.
      The word Hinduism is an English word of more recent origin. Hinduism entered the English language in the early 19th century to describe the beliefs and practices of those residents of India who had not converted to Islam or Christianity and did not practice Judaism or Zoroastrianism.

    • Hindus themselves prefer to use the Sanskrit term sanatana dharma for their religious tradition. Sanatana dharma is often translated into English as ‘eternal tradition’ or ‘eternal religion’ but the translation of dharma as ‘tradition’ or ‘religion’ gives an extremely limited, even mistaken, sense of the word. Dharma has many meanings in Sanskrit, the sacred language of Hindu scripture, including ‘moral order,’ ‘duty,’ and ‘right action.

    • It is most striking that people we now call Hindus never used this term to describe themselves. The Vedas, the Ramayana and the Bhagavad Gita, which today are seen by many as the religious texts of the Hindus, do not employ the word Hindu.
      That term was first used by the Achaemenid Persians to describe all those people who lived on or beyond the banks of the river Sindhu, or Indus. Therefore, at one stage the word Hindu as an ethno-geographic category came to englobe all those who lived in India, without ethnic distinction.
      It was only under the Muslim rulers of India that the term began to gain a religious connotation. But it was not until colonial times that the term ‘Hinduism’ was coined and acquired wide currency as referring collectively to a wide variety of religious communities, some of them with distinct traditions and opposed practices.
      Communities like the Saivites, Vaishvanites, and Lingyats, each with their own history and specific view of the world, were tied together under the blanket category Hinduism.”

      • @ravi,well said.
        In ancient India you had either a yogi, a bhakta, a tantric, a sanyasi, a sankhya vadin, a vedantin, a lokayata, a rishi, a muni, a pandit, a pragna, a yogini, a devi, a swami, a Saivite, a Vaishnavite, a siddha or Buddha, but no Hindu.

  19. The Supreme Court [of India] in the course of deciding an appeal in an election petition, has interpreted the meaning of ‘Hindutva’ and ‘Hinduism’ as a ‘synonym of ‘Indianisation’ — i.e. development of uniform culture by obliterating the differences between all all cultures co-existing in the country.’ The unanimous judgement given by the three-judge bench consisting of Justices J.S. Verma, N.P. Singh and K. Venkataswami, on December 11, 1995, has quoted earlier Supreme Court judgements and opinions of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, Dr. Toynbee and others in coming to the conclusion that Hinduism represented a way of life.

  20. The Hidden Hindus… include at least 1-2 million non-Indian Americans (Caucasians, African-Americans, Hispanics, etc.) who practice Yoga, meditation, vegetarianism, believe in reincarnation and karma, study the Vedic scriptures, etc., but who –- despite the fact that they are practicing Sanatana Dharma — will not call themselves ‘Hindu’, and do not understand that they are part of an ancient and living religious tradition.
    We need to do everything in our power to bring these two communities together, to bridge this gap.

    • The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 opens up Asian immigration. Transcendental Meditation takes off. Young people in shaved heads and saffron robes chant “Hare Krishna” at airports.

      In the 1960s and 1970s, Hinduism seemed on the path to spectacular growth in the United States as immigration laws eased and some Indian spiritual leaders were embraced by the counterculture of the l960s.

      The forecasts were half right.

      Transcendental Meditation and movements such as the International Society for Krishna Consciousness would face growing anti-cult opposition, among other obstacles. They would not be the path to lasting growth in Western converts to Hinduism.

      In what it calls the first effort to conduct a Hindu census in the United States, the Santa Barbara, Calif.-based Institute of American Religion discovered some 1,600 temples and centers with an estimated 600,000 practicing Hindus.

      That number could easily rise up to the estimated 1.2 million who self-identify as Hindus in national studies by adding in the mostly Indian Americans who limit their involvement to private spiritual practices or celebrations of semi-secularized holy days such as Diwali, said J. Gordon Melton, the institute executive director. Melton announced the results of the census at the recent annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Religion, Economics and Culture in Washington.

      • That may be the case in America… but Here in India… Evangelists have found the way to convert people in to Christianity and not the right way but by fooling illiterate people and making them against their own old culture Hinduism.They openly says that they have the right to destroy Hinduism in India as its Satan religion.

    • The heads of temple in America should become proactive in converting American people to Hinduism.

    Many Americans who are not ethnic Indians
    embrace Hindu practice or belief to one
    degree or another. Hundreds of thousands
    have flocked to swamis, pundits, saints and
    teachers from India since the 1960s. A 2005
    Harris poll commissioned by Yoga Journal
    found that 16.5 million Americans practice
    yoga regularly. A 2004 Gallup Poll found 72
    million Americans—24%—believe in reincarnation,
    an astonishing number that has
    held steady for decades and cuts across all
    religious affiliations, including even 10% of
    evangelical Christians. There is almost certainly
    overlap among these groups, but it is
    reasonable to state that at least a quarter of
    Americans share significant Hindu beliefs
    and practices.

    • According to a Gallup poll released today, 46% of Americans believe in Creationism (hindu believe )other than rest of Americans believe in god-guided evolution described in Abrahmanic religion.
      According to Hindu creationism all species on earth including humans have “devolved” or come down from a highly state of pure consciousness. Hindu creationists claim that species of plants and animals are material forms adopted by pure consciousness which live an endless cycle of births and rebirths. Ronald Numbers says that: “Hindu Creationists have insisted on the antiquity of humans, who they believe appeared fully formed as long, perhaps, as trillions of years ago.”
      Hindu creationism is a form of old earth creationism, according to Hindu creationists the universe may even be older than billions of years. These views are based on the Vedas which depict an extreme antiquity of the universe and history of the earth

      • 46% of Americans are right.They do not belive in evolution but in Creationism.
        This is the demands for equal time for Hindu Creationism.
        How long does it take to say “God magically created everything, and the Bible says so” then move on to evolution, which has considerably more substantiation.
        It’s tragic.
        On one side are reams of supporting documentation and information.
        On the other side is a couple pages of magical thinking and zero support, and we’re still losing?
        Maybe there is a abrahmanic God, and he just wants all to be stupid.

  22. People remove your rose-colored glasses (read saffron colored) and see the reality,Hinduism is only found in India as a religion and no where in the world (with some erratic exceptions) it is taken seriousdly as a religion,may be as a fad by some as the fashion changes that people like but discarded as soon as they find some thing new.
    Most of the readership here and on many other forums (read Hindu forums) complain and cry about the Hindus converting to ISlam and Christianity in India,they even took to the streets against Brother Dr.Zakir Naik for his intended lecture to be held in Thane.If i was in their place (agitating Hindus) i would go to his lecture and question him on what they think is wrong and beat him on his own game,so my question to them is that what is lacking in Hiduism that they don’t challange him?
    Instead of wishing to convert “Americans” , try save the “Lower caste Hindus” jumping of the Hindu band wagon at the first chance they get.
    I am very sure that most of the commentators above belong to a so called “higher caste” that is why every thing about Hiduism seems so rosy to them,i will tell them to ask this question to that human being who has been declared as an untouchable by your religion and ask him how he feels about Hinduism and being called a Hindu!

  23. som

    Who are the real Dalits of India?
    Brahmins are the Dalits of today.

  24. ravi

    Lokmanya Balgangadhar Tilak was well
    known freedom fighter of India.We remember him with great respect.
    But the idea about Aryan origin has been
    proved wrong after recent scientists research made by Indian space
    research organizations (ISRO),Rajasthan Ground Water Survey with the help of settelite mapping, carbon dating and
    ground water survey and afterward new
    reality found which has been approved
    by present UPA government I.e Saraswati
    You could found link.

  25. Vinay

    Indian Realist ,
    Are u a proud Gujarati ?
    Than only you can conclude like that “Regarding the origin of ‘Hindu’ from ‘Sindhu’, the Saurashtran practice of pronouncing ‘H’ in place of ‘S’ provides the answer.” .
    The term Hindu which was used by people from Aegean to Arabian Sea originated in Saurashtra.

    By God this is the most hilarious thing i have ever read.

    You quoted few to prove that “Hindu” word originated in India, but there are thousand who can prove that it is not.
    I know u don’t Vedic Mantras & all that becoz if have ever listened to them than you should know it very well that, when they speak about location for identifying the person who is performing rituals they say “Bharat Khandey / Arayavrate” or both sometime.
    No Vedic mantras have any mention of “Hindu” word.If you know any give the reference.

    If “Hindu” word is originated in India than why countries only on West side of India refer us with this name why not countries in the east.
    Don’t try to re-write history

    Proud Brahmin

  26. ram

    u have not proved the word hindu is mentioned in vedas

    • nitha

      “Sapta Sindhu “is mentioned in Veda and its Arebic version “Hapta Hindu”has not been mentioned in Veda .

  27. Pingback: Is it true India never invaded another country? - Page 62 - Historum - History Forums

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s